SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V & Larson EL (2008) Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health 98, 13721381.
  • Bieri FA, Gray DJ, Williams GM et al. (2013) Health-education package to prevent worm infections in Chinese schoolchildren. The New England Journal of Medicine 368, 16031612.
  • Biran A, Rabie T, Schmidt W, Juvekar S, Hirve S & Curtis V (2008) Comparing the performance of indicators of hand-washing practices in rural Indian households. Tropical Medicine & International Health 13, 278285.
  • Biran A, Schmidt W-P, Varadharajan KS et al. (2014) Effect of a behaviour-change intervention on handwashing with soap in india (superamma): a cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet Global Health 2, e145e154.
  • Blencowe H, Cousens S, Mullany LC et al. (2011) Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect. BMC Public Health 11 (Suppl. 3), S11.
  • Bowen A, Ma H, Jianming O et al. (2007) A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a handwashing-promotion program in Chinese primary schools. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76, 11661173.
  • Cairncross S & Valdmanis V (2006) Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion. In: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edn (eds DT Jamison, JG Breman, AR Measham, G Alleyne, M Claeson, DB Evans, P Jha, A Mills & P Musgrove) World Bank, Washington, DC, Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11755/ (Accessed 13 December 2013).
  • Clasen T, Bartram J, Colford J, Luby S, Quick R & Sobsey M (2009) Comment on ‘Household water treatment in poor populations: is there enough evidence for scaling up now?’. Environmental Science & Technology 43, 55425544.
  • Cowling BJ, Chan K-H, Fang VJ et al. (2009) Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 151, 437446.
  • Curtis V & Cairncross S (2003) Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 3, 275281.
  • Curtis V, Cairncross S & Yonli R (2000) Domestic hygiene and diarrhoea – pinpointing the problem. Tropical Medicine & International Health 5, 2232.
  • Curtis VA, Danquah LO & Aunger RV (2009) Planned, motivated and habitual hygiene behaviour: an eleven country review. Health Education Research 24, 655673.
  • Curtis V, Schmidt W, Luby S, Florez R, Touré O & Biran A (2011) Hygiene: new hopes, new horizons. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11, 312321.
  • Devamani C (2001) Bacterial recontamination of hands following handwashing and associated risk factors in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Infectious and Tropical Diseases. MSc. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
  • Ejemot RI, Ehiri JE, Meremikwu MM & Critchley JA (2012) Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Systematic Review CD004265.
  • Ejere HOD, Alhassan MB & Rabiu M (2012) Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma. Cochrane Database Systematic Review CD003659.
  • Emerson PM, Cairncross S, Bailey RL & Mabey DC (2000) Review of the evidence base for the ‘F’ and ‘E’ components of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Tropical Medicine & International Health 5, 515527.
  • Fan VY-M & Mahal A (2011) What prevents child diarrhoea? The impacts of water supply, toilets, and hand-washing in rural India. Journal of Development Effectiveness 3, 340370.
  • Filteau S (2009) The HIV-exposed, uninfected African child. Tropical Medicine & International Health 14, 276287.
  • Fleischman DS, Webster GD, Judah G, de Barra M, Aunger R & Curtis VA (2011) Sensor recorded changes in rates of hand washing with soap in response to the media reports of the H1N1 pandemic in Britain. BMJ Open 1, e000127.
  • Ford EW, Boyer BT, Menachemi N & Huerta TR (2014) Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue. American Journal of Public Health, e1e6.
  • Freeman MC, Clasen T, Brooker SJ, Akoko DO & Rheingans R (2013) The impact of a school-based hygiene, water quality and sanitation intervention on soil-transmitted helminth reinfection: a cluster-randomized trial. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89, 875883.
  • Fung IC-H & Cairncross S (2006) Effectiveness of handwashing in preventing SARS: a review. Tropical Medicine & International Health 11, 17491758.
  • Greenland K, Cairncross S, Cumming O & Curtis V (2013) Can we afford to overlook hand hygiene again? Tropical Medicine & International Health 18, 246249.
  • Isaac R, Alex RG & Knox TA (2008) Malabsorption in wasting HIV disease: diagnostic and management issues in resource-poor settings. Tropical Doctor 38, 133134.
  • Khan MU (1982) Interruption of shigellosis by hand washing. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 76, 164168.
  • Kirkwood BR & Sterne JAC (2003) Chapter 29: Regression modelling. In: Essential Medical Statistics, 2nd edn (eds Kirkwood BR & Sterne JAC). Blackwell Science, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 315342.
  • Lammie PJ, Moss DM, Brook Goodhew E et al. (2012) Development of a new platform for neglected tropical disease surveillance. International Journal for Parasitology 42, 797800.
  • Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Painter J et al. (2006) Combining drinking water treatment and hand washing for diarrhoea prevention, a cluster randomised controlled trial. Tropical Medicine & International Health 11, 479489.
  • Luby SP, Halder AK, Huda T, Unicomb L, Johnson RB. (2011) The effect of handwashing at recommended times with water alone and with soap on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: an observational study. PLoS Medicine 8, e1001052.
  • Lunn DJ, Thomas A, Best N & Spiegelhalter D (2000) WinBUGS: a Bayesian modelling framework: concepts, structure, and extensibility. Statistics and Computing 10, 325337.
  • McNamee R (2003) Confounding and confounders. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60, 227234.
  • Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J & Altman DG (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine 151, 264269.
  • Munger K & Harris SJ (1989) Effects of an observer on hand washing in a public restroom. Perceptual and Motor Skills 69, 733734.
  • Nizame FA, Unicomb L, Sanghvi T et al. (2013) Handwashing before food preparation and child feeding: a missed opportunity for hygiene promotion. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89, 11791185.
  • Pedersen DM, Keithly S & Brady K (1986) Effects of an observer on conformity to handwashing norm. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62, 169170.
  • Pope DP, Mishra V, Thompson L et al. (2010) Risk of low birth weight and stillbirth associated with indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in developing countries. Epidemiologic Reviews 32, 7081.
  • Prüss-Ustün A, Bartram J, Clasen T et al. (2014) Burden of diarrhoeal disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 147 countries. Tropical Medicine & International Health. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12329.
  • Rabie T & Curtis V (2006) Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Tropical Medicine & International Health 11, 258267.
  • Ram PK, Halder AK, Granger SP et al. (2010) Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83, 10701076.
  • Ram PK, Jahid I, Halder AK et al. (2011) Variability in hand contamination based on serial measurements: implications for assessment of hand-cleansing behavior and disease risk. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 510516.
  • Rhee V, Mullany LC, Khatry SK et al. (2008) Maternal and birth attendant hand washing and neonatal mortality in southern Nepal. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 162, 603608.
  • Roberts L, Jorm L, Patel M, Smith W, Douglas RM & McGilchrist C (2000) Effect of infection control measures on the frequency of diarrheal episodes in child care: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 105 (pt 1), 743746.
  • Savović J, Jones HE, Altman DG et al. (2012) Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomized, controlled trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 157, 429438.
  • Schmidt W-P & Cairncross S (2009) Household water treatment in poor populations: is there enough evidence for scaling up now? Environmental Science & Technology 43, 986992.
  • Thompson SG (1994) Systematic review: why sources of heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be investigated. British Medical Journal 309, 13511355.
  • Wells GA, Shea B, O'Connell D et al. (undated) The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. Ottawa Hospital. Research Institute. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp.
  • Welton N, Ades A, Carlin J, Altman D & Sterne J (2009) Models for potentially biased evidence in meta-analysis using empirically based priors. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 172, 119136.
  • WHO (2005) The Treatment of Diarrhoea. A Manual for Physicians and Other Senior Health Workers, 4th edn. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • WHO (2013) World Health Statistics 2013. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • Wilson JM, Chandler GN, Muslihatun & Jamiluddin (1991) Hand-washing reduces diarrhoea episodes: a study in Lombok, Indonesia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85, 819821.
  • Wolf J, Bonjour S & Prüss-Ustün A (2013) An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation. Journal of Water and Health 11, 6477.
  • Wolf J, Prüss-Ustün A, Cumming O et al. (2014) Assessing the impact of drinking-water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: a systematic review and meta-regression. Tropical Medicine and International Health. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12331.
  • World Health Organisation (2009) WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: a Summary. First Global Patient Safety Challenge. Clean Care is Safer Care. http://www.chp.gov.hk/files/pdf/who_ier_psp_200907_eng.pdf (Accessed December 2013).
  • Wu GD, Lewis JD, Hoffmann C et al. (2010) Sampling and pyrosequencing methods for characterizing bacterial communities in the human gut using 16s sequence tags. BMC Microbiology 10, 206.