• genital warts;
  • human papillomavirus;
  • intraepithelial neoplasia;
  • vaccination;
  • vulval cancer

Key content

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with neoplastic disease at sites other than the cervix.
  • Cancer caused by HPV may behave differently to other cancers at the same site.
  • The presence of HPV alone is not sufficient to demonstrate a causal association.
  • HPV vaccination has the potential to impact on disease burden beyond cervical cancer.

Learning objectives

  • To understand the spectrum of disease caused by HPV.
  • To review the management of HPV-associated disease in pregnancy.
  • To be aware that future research into HPV-related disease may alter management.

Ethical issues

  • What advice should women be given regarding their sexual partners?
  • Should boys be offered HPV vaccination?