The Myth of Cognitive Decline: Non-Linear Dynamics of Lifelong Learning
Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014
Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Topics in Cognitive Science
Volume 6, Issue 1, pages 5–42, January 2014
How to Cite
Ramscar, M., Hendrix, P., Shaoul, C., Milin, P. and Baayen, H. (2014), The Myth of Cognitive Decline: Non-Linear Dynamics of Lifelong Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science, 6: 5–42. doi: 10.1111/tops.12078
- Issue online: 30 JAN 2014
- Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 11 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Received: 19 AUG 2013
- Alexander von Humboldt research
- Psychometric testing
As adults age, their performance on many psychometric tests changes systematically, a finding that is widely taken to reveal that cognitive information-processing capacities decline across adulthood. Contrary to this, we suggest that older adults' changing performance reflects memory search demands, which escalate as experience grows. A series of simulations show how the performance patterns observed across adulthood emerge naturally in learning models as they acquire knowledge. The simulations correctly identify greater variation in the cognitive performance of older adults, and successfully predict that older adults will show greater sensitivity to fine-grained differences in the properties of test stimuli than younger adults. Our results indicate that older adults' performance on cognitive tests reflects the predictable consequences of learning on information-processing, and not cognitive decline. We consider the implications of this for our scientific and cultural understanding of aging.