Rapid actin turnover is essential for numerous actin-based processes. However, how it is precisely regulated remains poorly understood. Actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1) has been shown to be an important factor by acting coordinately with actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin in promoting actin depolymerization, the rate-limiting factor in actin turnover. However, the molecular mechanism by which AIP1 promotes actin turnover remains largely unknown in plants. Here, we provide a demonstration that AIP1 promotes actin turnover, which is required for optimal growth of rice plants. Specific down-regulation of OsAIP1 increased the level of filamentous actin and reduced actin turnover, whereas over-expression of OsAIP1 induced fragmentation and depolymerization of actin filaments and enhanced actin turnover. In vitro biochemical characterization showed that, although OsAIP1 alone does not affect actin dynamics, it enhances ADF-mediated actin depolymerization. It also caps the filament barbed end in the presence of ADF, but the capping activity is not required for their coordinated action. Real-time visualization of single filament dynamics showed that OsAIP1 enhanced ADF-mediated severing and dissociation of pointed end subunits. Consistent with this, the filament severing frequency and subunit off-rate were enhanced in OsAIP1 over-expressors but decreased in RNAi protoplasts. Importantly, OsAIP1 acts coordinately with ADF and profilin to induce massive net actin depolymerization, indicating that AIP1 plays a major role in the turnover of actin, which is required to optimize F-actin levels in plants.