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Keywords:

  • Arabidopsis thaliana ;
  • triacylglycerol;
  • phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase;
  • premature cell death;
  • free fatty acid

Summary

Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) and diacylglycerol:acyl CoA acyltransferase play overlapping roles in triacylglycerol (TAG) assembly in Arabidopsis, and are essential for seed and pollen development, but the functional importance of PDAT in vegetative tissues remains largely unknown. Taking advantage of the Arabidopsis tgd1–1 mutant that accumulates oil in vegetative tissues, we demonstrate here that PDAT1 is crucial for TAG biosynthesis in growing tissues. We show that disruption of PDAT1 in the tgd1–1 mutant background causes serious growth retardation, gametophytic defects and premature cell death in developing leaves. Lipid analysis data indicated that knockout of PDAT1 results in increases in the levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) and diacylglycerol. In vivo 14C-acetate labeling experiments showed that, compared with wild-type, tgd1–1 exhibits a 3.8-fold higher rate of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is unaffected by disruption or over-expression of PDAT1, indicating a lack of feedback regulation of FAS in tgd1–1. We also show that detached leaves of both pdat1–2 and tgd1–1 pdat1–2 display increased sensitivity to FFA but not to diacylglycerol. Taken together, our results reveal a critical role for PDAT1 in mediating TAG synthesis and thereby protecting against FFA-induced cell death in fast-growing tissues of plants.