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Cover image for Vol. 14 Issue 11

November 2013

Volume 14, Issue 11

Pages 1109–1191

  1. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Original Articles
    4. Traffic Interchange
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      Rab35: GEFs, GAPs and Effectors (pages 1109–1117)

      Mathilde Chaineau, Maria S. Ioannou and Peter S. McPherson

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/tra.12096

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      The small GTPases Rab35 has emerged as a key regulator of endosomal membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we describe the GEFs that activate Rab35, the GAPs that inactivate Rab35, and the effectors that mediate its diverse biological functions.

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      Regulation of the NADPH Oxidase and Associated Ion Fluxes During Phagocytosis (pages 1118–1131)

      Paula Nunes, Nicolas Demaurex and Mary C. Dinauer

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/tra.12115

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      NADPH oxidase-mediated production of ROS within phagosomes is an electrogenic process critical for microbial killing and antigen processing. However, mechanisms regulating oxidase targeting and activation at phagosomes are not well understood and differ according to cell type. This review summarizes recent advances revealing prominent roles for PI(3)P, p40phox, and trafficking of membrane organelles for regulating phagosomal oxidase activity. Additional recent studies have highlighted the importance of intraphagosomal ionic balance including pH, chloride and calcium fluxes for sustaining optimal phagosomal oxidase function.

  2. Original Articles

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    2. Reviews
    3. Original Articles
    4. Traffic Interchange
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      KPNB1, XPO7 and IPO8 Mediate the Translocation ofNF-κB/p65 into the Nucleus (pages 1132–1143)

      Peizhou Liang, Haiyan Zhang, Guoxin Wang, Suping Li, Shujie Cong, Yingyun Luo and Biliang Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/tra.12097

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      Several members of importin β family members are responsible for p65 import. The most important one is KPNB1. It interacts with p65 dependent on KPNA2 and NLS of p65, whereas XPO7 and IPO8 binding to p65 is NLS independent. The importin-p65 complex is dissociated by RanGTP in the nucleus, and p65 is exported by XPO1.

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      Distinctive Conformation of Minor Site-Specific Nuclear Localization Signals Bound to Importin-α (pages 1144–1154)

      Chiung-Wen Chang, Rafael Miguez Couñago, Simon J. Williams, Mikael Bodén and Bostjan Kobe

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/tra.12098

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      Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) contain one or two clusters of basic residues that are recognized by importin-α. Importin-α has two NLS-binding sites (major and minor), with the major site known as the primary binding site. Using crystallographic and biochemical approaches, we have characterized a group of atypical NLSs that bind primarily to the minor site. Unlike previously characterized NLSs, the C-terminal residues of these NLSs form an α-helical turn, which prevents them from binding to the major NLS-binding site.

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      Arabidopsis Exocyst Subcomplex Containing Subunit EXO70B1 Is Involved in Autophagy-Related Transport to the Vacuole (pages 1155–1165)

      Ivan Kulich, Tamara Pečenková, Juraj Sekereš, Ondřej Smetana, Matyáš Fendrych, Ilse Foissner, Margit Höftberger and Viktor Žárský

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/tra.12101

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      Exocyst, an octameric complex known to tether exocytotic vesicles to the plasma membrane, is found to be involved in the Golgi-independent autophagic membrane transport into the vacuole directed by EXO70B1 subunit—one of 23 EXO70 paralogs in Arabidopsis. EXO70B1/ATG8f positive compartments are internalized into the central vacuole and exo70B1 mutants show decreased number of intravacuolar autophagic bodies, increased nitrogen starvation susceptibility, ectopic hypersensitive response mediated by salicylic acid accumulation and vacuole anthocyanin accumulation defects.

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      Toxoplasma gondii Syntaxin 6 Is Required for Vesicular Transport Between Endosomal-Like Compartments and the Golgi Complex (pages 1166–1181)

      Allison J. Jackson, Caroline Clucas, Nicola J. Mamczur, David J. Ferguson and Markus Meissner

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/tra.12102

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      The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has a complex secretory system. Here, we characterize the apicomplexan SNARE, Syntaxin 6 (TgStx6), and show that it localizes to the trans Golgi network (TGN). TgStx6 controls retrograde vesicle trafficking from the endosomal-like compartments (ELCs) to the TGN and Golgi. Overexpression of TgStx6 is lethal for the parasite and causes expansion of the ELCs and Golgi fragmentation. Toxoplasma's secretory system appears plant-like with an elaborate TGN acting as a major sorting compartment where trafficking pathways intersect.

  3. Traffic Interchange

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Original Articles
    4. Traffic Interchange
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      Sialic Acid Linkage in Glycosphingolipids Is a Molecular Correlate for Trafficking and Delivery of Extracellular Cargo (pages 1182–1191)

      Madhu Sudhan Ravindran, Lukas Bahati Tanner and Markus R. Wenk

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/tra.12100

      Trafficking of extracellular cargoes are highly dynamic, but ordered processes at the molecular and structural level. Here, we describe the role of host cell surface glycosphingolipids as molecular correlates for recognition and trafficking of viruses and bacterial toxins. We propose that the position of sialic acid attachment in the glycosphingolipid structure correlates with the intracellular trafficking route of extracellular cargoes. Our study provides a testable hypothesis for future investigations into a wide range of intracellular trafficking events.

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