Funding for this study was provided by a grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL077438).
BLOOD DONORS AND BLOOD COLLECTION
Donor anxiety, needle pain, and syncopal reactions combine to determine retention: a path analysis of two-year donor return data
Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2013
© 2013 American Association of Blood Banks
Volume 53, Issue 9, pages 1992–2000, September 2013
How to Cite
France, C. R., France, J. L., Wissel, M. E., Ditto, B., Dickert, T. and Himawan, L. K. (2013), Donor anxiety, needle pain, and syncopal reactions combine to determine retention: a path analysis of two-year donor return data. Transfusion, 53: 1992–2000. doi: 10.1111/trf.12069
- Issue online: 9 SEP 2013
- Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 8 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Received: 21 SEP 2012
- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Grant Number: HL077438
Efforts to expand the donor pool by recruiting younger donors have resulted in higher numbers of initial donations, but retention of young donors continues to be challenging.
Study Design and Methods
Path analysis was used to examine the simultaneous relationships among syncopal reactions, donation anxiety, needle pain, donor satisfaction, and donation intention in predicting repeat donation. Participants included 421 first- and second-time donors recruited for a study comparing the effects of predonation water loading with and without the use of applied muscle tension during donation (52% female, 60.8% first-time donor, mean age 20.3 years). For this longitudinal follow-up study, donor database records were accessed 2 years after the index donation to assess repeat donation.
Results of a series of path analyses demonstrated the influential role of donor anxiety in shaping donor retention (final model χ2 = 35.75, root mean square error of approximation 0.03, comparative fit index 0.98, weighted root mean square residual 0.74). First, anxiety exerted a direct negative influence on donation intention, the proximal and sole direct predictor of repeat donation. Second, anxiety increased the likelihood of donor-reported needle pain, adversely affecting donation satisfaction and, subsequently, donation intention. Finally, anxiety was associated with donor ratings of syncopal reactions through its impact on needle pain, which also contributed to decreased donation intention.
These results provide novel evidence that donation anxiety plays a central role in shaping future donation behavior. Individual differences in anxiety must be considered when developing and testing strategies to enhance blood donor retention.