Long-term return behavior of Chinese whole blood donors

Authors

  • Nan Guo,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    2. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    3. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    4. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    5. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    6. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    7. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    • Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jingxing Wang,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Qilu Yu,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Tonghan Yang,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Xiangdong Dong,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Guoxin Wen,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Mei-hei-li Tiemuer,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Julin Li,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Weilan He,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Yunlai Lv,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hongli Ma,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Xiuqiong Wen,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Mei Huang,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Paul Ness,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jing Liu,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • David J. Wright,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Kenrad Nelson,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hua Shan,

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • and for the NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), International Component

    1. Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
    3. Westat, Rockville, Maryland
    4. Yunnan Kunming Blood Center, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R. China
    5. Urumqi Blood Center, Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R. China
    6. Guangxi Blood Center, Liuzhou, Guangxi, P.R. China
    7. Luoyang Blood Center, Luoyang, Henan, P.R. China
    8. Mianyang Blood Center, Mianyang, Sichuan, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author

Address reprint requests to: Nan Guo, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, E6150, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205; e-mail: nguo@jhsph.edu.

Abstract

Background

It is important to understand donor return behavior to maintain sufficient numbers of blood donors in developing countries where blood supplies are often inadequate.

Study Design and Methods

A total of 54,267 whole blood (WB) donors who donated between January 1 and March 31, 2008, at the five blood centers in China were followed for 2.5 years. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with their return behavior. A recurrent-event Cox proportional-hazard model was used to evaluate the overall effect of demographic variables and return behavior among first-time donors.

Results

Donors with previous donation history were more likely to return and the number of previous returns was positively associated with future return (odds ratios, 3.31, 4.82, and 8.16 for one, two to three, and more than three times compared to none). Thirty-four percent of donors (first-time donor, 21%; repeat donor, 54%) made at least one return donation, with 14% returning in the first 9 months. The multivariable logistic regression model for all WB donors and the Cox proportional hazard model for first-time donors showed consistent predictors for return: female sex, older age (≥25 years), larger volume (300 or 400 mL), and donating in satellite collection site.

Conclusion

Encouraging first-time donors to make multiple donations is important for keeping adequate blood supply. The finding that first-time and repeat donors shared the same predictors for return indicates that retention strategies on repeat donors may be effective on first-time donors. Studies on motivators and barriers to return are needed, so that successful retention strategies can be tailored.

Ancillary