TRANSPLANTATION AND CELLULAR ENGINEERING
Acute graft-versus-host disease in a nonhematopoietic stem cell transplantation candidate treated with decitabine followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor–primed peripheral blood stem cells infusion: a special entity of the disease?
With a well-developed strategy of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) prophylaxis, the prognosis of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients who develop aGVHD has improved considerably. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated GVHD (TA-GVHD) can be fatal. Recent advancements in immune cellular therapy are being adopted in clinical practice, although many concerns including TA-GVHD remain. This report describes a 64-year-old male non-HSCT candidate diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia who had received decitabine followed by an infusion of granulocyte–colony-stimulating factor–primed peripheral blood stem cells (G-PBSCs) from his daughter, who carried haploidentical human leukocyte antigen. The patient developed aGVHD on the 20th day after infusion.
Study Design and Methods
This study is a single case report of a non-HSCT candidate who developed skin aGVHD with mild clinical course after decitabine and G-PBSCs combination. The clinical course, chimerism, and aGVHD pathology studies are detailed.
Compared with conventional aGVHD in allo-HSCT recipients and TA-aGVHD, the presentation of this case followed a self-limited clinical course without marrow aplasia or severe progression. However, the patient eventually died of leukemia without a significant graft-versus-leukemia effect.
First, the results demonstrate the existence of aGVHD in elderly non-HSCT candidates receiving adoptive cellular immune therapy. Second, aGVHD occurring under these conditions is probably a unique entity of aGVHD compared to TA-aGVHD and the conventional pattern in allo-HSCT recipients with respect to clinical course and prognosis.