Mapping the fine specificity of ABO monoclonal reagents with A and B type-specific function-spacer-lipid constructs in kodecytes and inkjet printed on paper




Monoclonal (MoAb) reagents are routinely used and are usually very reliable for the serologic determination of ABO blood types. However, the fine specificity and cross-reactivity of these reagents are often unknown, particularly against synthetic antigens used in some diagnostic assays. If nonserologic assays or very sensitive techniques other than those specifically prescribed by the manufacturer are used, then there is a risk of incorrect interpretation of results.

Study Design and Methods

Forty-seven MoAbs and two polyclonal ABO reagents were tested against red blood cell (RBC) kodecytes prepared with A trisaccharide, A Type 1, A Type 2, A Type 3, A Type 4, B trisaccharide, B Type 1, B Type 2, acquired B trisaccharide, and Lea trisaccharide function-spacer-lipid (FSL) constructs. Natural RBCs were tested in parallel. In addition these FSL constructs were printed onto paper with a desktop inkjet printer and used in a novel immunoassay that identifies reactivity through the appearance of alphanumeric characters.


Mapping of MoAbs with kodecytes and printed FSL constructs revealed a series of broad recognition patterns. All ABO MoAbs tested were reactive with the RBC dominant Type 2 ABO antigens. Unexpectedly some anti-A reagents were reactive against the B Type 1 antigen, while others were poorly reactive with trisaccharide antigens.


All ABO MoAbs detect the RBC dominant Type 2 ABO antigens; however, some reagents may show minor reactivity with inappropriate blood group antigens, which needs to be considered when using these reagents in alternative or highly sensitive analytic systems.