Caudal epidural anti-nociception using lidocaine, bupivacaine or their combination in cows undergoing reproductive procedures
Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Volume 40, Issue 3, pages 328–332, May 2013
How to Cite
Vesal, N., Ahmadi, M., Foroud, M. and Imani, H. (2013), Caudal epidural anti-nociception using lidocaine, bupivacaine or their combination in cows undergoing reproductive procedures. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40: 328–332. doi: 10.1111/vaa.12000
- Issue published online: 12 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012
- Received 26 May 2012; accepted 27 July 2012.
- caudal epidural;
Objective To evaluate the anti-nociceptive effects of lidocaine, lidocaine-bupivacaine combination or bupivacaine following caudal epidural administration in cows undergoing reproductive procedures.
Study design Blinded, randomized experimental study.
Animals Thirty seven healthy Holstein cows (mean weight ± SD, 633 ± 41 kg).
Methods Animals were allocated randomly to receive one of four treatments: group LID, 0.2 mg kg−1 lidocaine 2%; group LID-BUP, lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture in a 1:1 volume ratio (0.1 mg kg−1 and 0.025 mg kg−1, respectively); group BUP-LD, 0.05 mg kg−1 bupivacaine 0.5%; and group BUP-HD, 0.06 mg kg−1 bupivacaine 0.5%. The onset and duration of perineal anti-nociception were determined using superficial and deep pin pricks and the number of cows with complete perineal anti-nociception was recorded. Parameters were compared using anova followed by Duncan’s test where relevant.
Results Mean ± SD time to onset of anti-nociception following epidural administration of BUP-LD was significantly longer than for LID-BUP (p < 0.05). The duration (in minutes) of perineal anti-nociception was significantly longer following epidural administration of BUP-HD (247 ± 31) versus LID-BUP (181 ± 33) and LID (127 ± 25) minutes respectively. The % of cows with complete anti-nociception was increased in the group treated with BUP-HD compared to BUP-LD. Severe ataxia or recumbency did not occur in any groups.
Conclusions and clinical relevance Epidurally administered bupivacaine, at a dose of 0.06 mg kg−1, may provide satisfactory caudal epidural anti-nociception for longer-duration obstetric and surgical procedures.