Sedative and analgesic effects of buprenorphine, combined with either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine, for premedication prior to elective surgery in cats and dogs
Article first published online: 24 DEC 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Volume 40, Issue 3, pages 297–307, May 2013
How to Cite
Hunt, J. R., Grint, N. J., Taylor, P. M. and Murrell, J. C. (2013), Sedative and analgesic effects of buprenorphine, combined with either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine, for premedication prior to elective surgery in cats and dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40: 297–307. doi: 10.1111/vaa.12003
- Issue published online: 12 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 24 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Received: 20 MAR 2012
- mechanical nociceptive threshold;
To evaluate the sedative and analgesic effects of intramuscular buprenorphine with either dexmedetomidine or acepromazine, administered as premedication to cats and dogs undergoing elective surgery.
Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical study.
Forty dogs and 48 cats.
Animals were assigned to one of four groups, according to anaesthetic premedication and induction agent: buprenorphine 20 μg kg−1 with either dexmedetomidine (dex) 250 μg m−2 or acepromazine (acp) 0.03 mg kg−1, followed by alfaxalone (ALF) or propofol (PRO). Meloxicam was administered preoperatively to all animals and anaesthesia was always maintained using isoflurane. Physiological measures and assessments of pain, sedation and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were made before and after premedication, intraoperatively, and for up to 24 hours after premedication. Data were analyzed with one-way, two-way and mixed between-within subjects anova, Kruskall–Wallis analyses and Chi squared tests. Results were deemed significant if p ≤ 0.05, except where multiple comparisons were performed (p ≤ 0.005).
Cats premedicated with dex were more sedated than cats premedicated with acp (p < 0.001) and ALF doses were lower in dex cats (1.2 ± 1.0 mg kg−1) than acp cats (2.5 ± 1.9 mg kg−1) (p = 0.041). There were no differences in sedation in dogs however PRO doses were lower in dex dogs (1.5 ± 0.8 mg kg−1) compared to acp dogs (3.3 ± 1.1 mg kg−1) (p < 0.001). There were no differences between groups with respect to pain scores or MNT for cats or dogs.
Choice of dex or acp, when given with buprenorphine, caused minor, clinically detectable, differences in various characteristics of anaesthesia, but not in the level of analgesia.
A combination of buprenorphine with either acp or dex, followed by either PRO or ALF, and then isoflurane, accompanied by an NSAID, was suitable for anaesthesia in dogs and cats undergoing elective surgery. Choice of sedative agent may influence dose of anaesthetic induction agent.