Attitude of Brazilian veterinarians in the recognition and treatment of pain in horses and cattle
Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Volume 40, Issue 4, pages 410–418, July 2013
How to Cite
Lorena, S. E., Luna, S. P., Lascelles, B. D. X. and Corrente, J. E. (2013), Attitude of Brazilian veterinarians in the recognition and treatment of pain in horses and cattle. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40: 410–418. doi: 10.1111/vaa.12025
- Issue published online: 13 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Received: 23 MAR 2010
The objective of this study was to assess the use of analgesics, describe the attitudes of Brazilian veterinarians towards pain relief in horses and cattle and evaluate the differences due to gender, year of graduation and type of practice.
Questionnaires were sent to 1000 large animal veterinarians by mail, internet and delivered in person during national meetings. The survey investigated the attitudes of Brazilian veterinarians to the recognition and treatment of pain in large animals and consisted of sections asking about demographic data, use of analgesic drugs, attitudes to pain relief and to the assessment of pain. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze frequencies. Simple post hoc comparisons were performed using the chi-square test.
Eight hundred questionnaires were collected, but 87 were discarded because they were incomplete or blank. The opioid of choice for use in large animals was butorphanol (43.4%) followed by tramadol (39%). Flunixin (83.2%) and ketoprofen (67.6%) were the most frequently used NSAIDs by Brazilian veterinarians. Respondents indicated that horses received preoperative analgesics for laparotomy more frequently (72.9%) than cattle (58.5%). The most frequently administered preoperative drugs for laparotomy in horses were flunixin (38.4%) and xylazine (23.6%), whereas the preoperative drugs for the same surgical procedure in cattle were xylazine (31.8%) and the local administration of lidocaine (48%). Fracture repair was considered the most painful surgical procedure for both species. Most veterinarians (84.1%) believed that their knowledge in this area was not adequate.
Conclusions and clinical relevance
Although these Brazilian veterinarians thought that their knowledge on recognition and treatment of pain was not adequate, the use of analgesic in large animals was similar in Brazil to that reported in other countries.