The effects of pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide on arterial oxygenation, ventilation-perfusion distribution and plasma endothelin-1 concentration in laterally recumbent isoflurane-anaesthetized horses

Authors

  • Tamara Grubb,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA
    • Correspondence: Tamara Grubb, Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, 99164 WA, USA. E-mail: tgrubb@vetmed.wsu.edu

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  • Jan HM Frendin,

    1. Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
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  • Anna Edner,

    1. Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
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  • Pia Funkquist,

    1. Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
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  • Göran Hedenstierna,

    1. Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
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  • Görel Nyman

    1. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden
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Abstract

Objectives

Anaesthetized horses commonly become hypoxaemic due to ventilation/perfusion (math formula) mismatch and increased pulmonary shunt fraction (math formula). Pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide may improve oxygenation but may increase plasma concentration of the potent vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1 (ET-1). Objectives: Study 1) compare arterial oxygen concentration (PaO2) and saturation (SaO2), calculated math formula and ET-1 concentration; and Study 2) assess math formula matching and measured math formula in isoflurane-anaesthetized horses in left lateral recumbency receiving pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO group) or inhalant gas only (C group).

Study design

Prospective research trial.

Animals

Ten Healthy adult Standardbred horses. Two horses were anaesthestized in both groups in a random cross-over design with >4 weeks between studies.

Methods

Study 1) Cardiopulmonary data including PaO2, SaO2, math formula and ET-1 concentration were measured or calculated prior to and at various points during PiNO administration in 6PiNO and 6C horses. Two-way repeated measures anova with Bonferroni significant difference test was used for data analysis with < 0.05 considered significant. Study 2) math formula matching and math formula were determined using the multiple inert gas elimination technique in 3 horses. Data were collected after 60 minutes of anaesthesia without PiNO (baseline) and 15 minutes after PiNO was pulsed during the first 30%, and then the first 60%, of inspiration. Data were descriptive only.

Results

Study 1) PaO2 and SaO2 were higher and calculated math formula was lower in the PiNO group than the C group at most time points. ET-1 was not different over time or between groups. Study 2) math formula matching and measured math formula were improved from baseline in all horses but PiNO60% provided no improvement when compared to PiNO30%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

PiNO delivered in the initial portion of the inspiration effectively relieves hypoxaemia in anaesthetized horses by improving math formula matching and decreasing math formula without affecting ET-1.

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