• cancer risk;
  • canine;
  • carcinogens;
  • glutathione;
  • lymphosarcoma;
  • polymorphisms


Glutathione-S-transferase enzymes (GSTs) play an important role in the detoxification of environmental carcinogens. Defective GST genotypes are over-represented in human cancers; in particular, low activity GSTT1 genotypes are risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We hypothesized that defective GSTT1 genotypes would be associated with lymphoma risk in dogs. To address this, we resequenced the exons, splice junctions, and 3′-UTR of canine GSTT1 in dogs with lymphoma (n = 93) and age-matched unaffected dogs (n = 86). Of 27 canine GSTT1 variants identified, the I2+28 G>A was significantly associated with lymphoma [odds ratio (OR) 6.26, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.77–22.2], with the AA genotype found in 18.3% of affected dogs but only 3.5% of controls (P = 0.002). This intronic variant was predicted to perturb GSTT1 mRNA splicing, and may increase lymphoma risk by impairing detoxification of environmental chemicals. Confirmation of this finding in a larger population of dogs may support the inclusion of GSTT1 genotyping in epidemiologic studies of canine lymphoma risk.