• canine;
  • cyclophosphamide;
  • cystitis;
  • lymphoma


Sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) is a known risk of cyclophosphamide treatment; however, most canine reports are case series. This case–control study examined risk factors for SHC in dogs with lymphoma receiving oral cyclophosphamide. Twenty-two dogs with SHC and 66 control dogs were identified. On univariate analysis, SHC risk factors included age (P = 0.041), induction protocol (P = 0.021) and cumulative cyclophosphamide dose (P = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, increasing cumulative cyclophosphamide dose was associated with increased risk of SHC and the ‘short’ induction protocol (protocol 1) was associated with decreased risk. Controlling for age and induction protocol, odds of SHC increased by 2.21 per 750 mg m−2 increase in cyclophosphamide dose (P = 0.001). SHC from oral cyclophosphamide is a predominately delayed toxicity resulting from high cumulative doses.