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Risk factors for development of sterile haemorrhagic cystitis in canine lymphoma patients receiving oral cyclophosphamide: a case–control study

Authors

  • R. Gaeta,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    • Correspondence address:

      Dr R. Gaeta

      Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital

      University of Pennsylvania

      3900 Delancey Street

      Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

      e-mail: rgaeta@vet.upenn.edu

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  • D. Brown,

    1. Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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  • R. Cohen,

    1. Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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  • K. Sorenmo

    1. Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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Abstract

Sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) is a known risk of cyclophosphamide treatment; however, most canine reports are case series. This case–control study examined risk factors for SHC in dogs with lymphoma receiving oral cyclophosphamide. Twenty-two dogs with SHC and 66 control dogs were identified. On univariate analysis, SHC risk factors included age (P = 0.041), induction protocol (P = 0.021) and cumulative cyclophosphamide dose (P = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, increasing cumulative cyclophosphamide dose was associated with increased risk of SHC and the ‘short’ induction protocol (protocol 1) was associated with decreased risk. Controlling for age and induction protocol, odds of SHC increased by 2.21 per 750 mg m−2 increase in cyclophosphamide dose (P = 0.001). SHC from oral cyclophosphamide is a predominately delayed toxicity resulting from high cumulative doses.

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