Serum biochemical reference intervals for the Polish Konik horse (Equus cabalus gmelini Ant.)



A. Niedźwiedź, Department of Internal Diseases with Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Pl. Grunwaldzki 47, 50-366 Wrocław, Poland




Establishment of reference intervals (RI) for serum biochemical analytes is important for monitoring the health of different breeds of horses.


The aim of this study was to measure and report RI for serum biochemical analytes of the Polish Konik horse.

Material and methods

Blood samples were collected from 74 clinically healthy Polish Konik horses living under controlled natural conditions. These were adult primitive horses, aged 3–15 years, including 28 males (21 stallions, 7 geldings) and 46 mares. Serum analytes were measured and analyzed using a commercial automated analyzer.


The following RI (medians) were comparable to previously published RI in horses: albumin 34.8–41.3 g/L (38.0); ALP 124–309 U/L (216); ALT 6–33 U/L (19); AST 300–566 U/L (433); calcium 2.8–3.2 mmol/L (3.0); chloride 95–102 mmol/L (99); cholesterol 2.1–3.4 mmol/L (2.7); CK 167–488 U/L (328); creatinine 101–170 μmol/L (136); glucose 2.7–5.3 mmol/L (4.0); lipase 303–1143 U/L (723); magnesium 0.8–1.0 mmol/L (0.9); phosphate 0.9–1.5 mmol/L (1.2); potassium 2.4–5.0 mmol/L (3.7); sodium 138–144 mmol/L (141); total bilirubin 8–16 μmol/L (11.7); total protein 63.5–78.9 g/L (71.2); triglycerides 0.0–0.3 mmol/L (0.1); urea 2.2–7.3 mmol/L (4.7).


Reference intervals established in this study provide a valuable preliminary baseline for assessment of serum analytes in healthy Polish Konik horses.