An 8-year-old castrated male hound mix was referred to the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for severe lameness, pollakiuria, and dyschezia. On presentation, the dog was nonweight bearing on the right rear limb and the right carpus was diffusely swollen. Synovial fluid analysis from the right carpus revealed a population of epithelial cells displaying marked anisocytosis, anisokaryosis, multinucleation, and prominent, variably sized nucleoli. A metastatic carcinoma with presumed prostatic or urothelial origin was diagnosed based on cytomorphology. Subsequent cytologic evaluation of peripheral lymph nodes revealed the presence of a similar neoplastic population. The dog was euthanized and synovial fluid from both stifle joints, as well as impression smears of the prostate gland, were collected. Carcinoma cells were identified in each stifle joint and in the prostate gland. Immunocytochemistry was performed on synovial fluid smears from 2 of the joints (right stifle and right carpus) and on impression smears of the prostate gland. The neoplastic population in the joints and prostate gland showed strong immunoreactivity to uroplakin III, a urothelial marker, indicating metastasis of a transitional cell carcinoma to multiple joints. In addition, evidence for epithelial to mesenchymal transition was identified using cytokeratin, an epithelial marker, and vimentin, a mesenchymal marker. A necropsy was performed and histopathology confirmed the presence of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma in various tissues. This case illustrates the importance of considering metastatic disease when a patient is presented with severe lameness and joint pain, and the clinical utility of synovial fluid cytology for diagnosis of metastasis in these cases.