Manolis N. Saridomichelakis and Alexander F. Koutinas
Background – Canine leishmaniosis, a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi), is fairly common in endemic areas, and skin lesions are the most frequent clinical manifestation. Despite the large volume of relevant scientific information, there is a relative paucity of up-to-date review articles on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease. Hypothesis/Objectives – This review provides current information on the macroscopic and histological skin lesions of dogs with leishmaniosis and comments on their pathogenesis and definitive diagnosis. Conclusions and clinical importance – Canine leishmaniosis due to L. infantum is characterized by diverse cutaneous manifestations that may reflect different host–parasite relationships. Furthermore, different types of skin lesions may occur, in various combinations, in the same dog. The definitive diagnosis of these lesions is based on clinical and laboratory examinations and on the response to antileishmanial treatment.