To review the inter-relationships between calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), parent and activated vitamin D metabolites (vitamin D, 25(OH)-vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D, 24,25(OH)2-vitamin D), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) during chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats.
Human and veterinary literature.
Human Data Synthesis
Beneficial effects of calcitriol treatment during CKD have traditionally been attributed to regulation of PTH but new perspectives emphasize direct renoprotective actions independent of PTH and calcium. It is now apparent that calcitriol exerts an important effect on renal tubular reclamation of filtered 25(OH)-vitamin D, which may be important in maintaining adequate circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D. This in turn may be vital for important pleiotropic actions in peripheral tissues through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms that impact the health of those local tissues.
Veterinary Data Synthesis
Limited information is available reporting the benefit of calcitriol treatment in dogs and cats with CKD.
A survival benefit has been shown for dogs with CKD treated with calcitriol compared to placebo. The concentrations of circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D have recently been shown to be low in people and dogs with CKD and are related to survival in people with CKD. Combination therapy for people with CKD using both parental and activated vitamin D compounds is common in human nephrology and there is a developing emphasis using combination treatment with activated vitamin D and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) inhibitors.