• 1
    Barrett PJ, Lester RL. Heparin versus saline flushing solutions in a small community hospital. Hosp Pharm 1990; 25(2):115118.
  • 2
    Geritz MA, Hoare K, Jensen L. Saline versus heparin in intermittent infuser patency maintenance. West J Nurs Res 1992; 14(2):131141.
  • 3
    Hamilton RA, Plis JM, Clay C, et al. Heparin sodium versus 0.9% sodium chloride injection for maintaining patency of indwelling intermittent infusion devices. Clin Pharm 1988; 7(6):439443.
  • 4
    Mathews KA, Brooks MJ, Valliant AE. A prospective study of intravenous catheter contamination. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 1996; 6(1):3343.
  • 5
    Marsh-Ng ML, Burney DP, Garcia J. Surveillance of infections associated with intravenous catheters in dogs and cats in an intensive care unit. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2007; 43(1):1320.
  • 6
    Lobetti RG, Joubert KE, Picard J, et al. Bacterial colonization of intravenous catheters in young dogs suspected to have parvoviral enteritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 220(9):13211324.
  • 7
    Fleeman LRJ. Intermittent heparinised saline flushes for maintaining indwelling peripheral and central intravenous catheters in diabetic dogs. Aust Vet Pract 2001; 31(3):126131.
  • 8
    Goode CJ, Titler M, Rakel B, et al. A meta-analysis of effects of heparin flush and saline flush: quality and cost implications. Nurs Res 1991; 40(6):324330.
  • 9
    Karen L. Efficacy of normal saline solution versus heparin solution for maintaining patency of peripheral intravenous catheters in children. J Emerg Nurs 1997; 23(4):306309.
  • 10
    Suojanen J, Brophy D, Nasser I. Thrombus on indwelling central venous catheters: the histopathology of “fibrin sheaths.” Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2000; 23(3):194197.
  • 11
    Talbott GA, Winters WD, Bratton SL, et al. A prospective study of femoral catheter-related thrombosis in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1995; 149(3):288291.
  • 12
    Tagalakis V, Kahn SR, Libman M, et al. The epidemiology of peripheral vein infusion thrombophlebitis: a critical review. Am J Med 2002; 113(2):146151.
  • 13
    Gorbet MB, Sefton MV. Biomaterial-associated thrombosis: roles of coagulation factors, complement, platelets and leukocytes. Biomaterials 2004; 25(26):56815703.
  • 14
    Rabe C, Gramann T, Sons X, et al. Keeping central venous lines open: a prospective comparison of heparin, vitamin C and sodium chloride sealing solutions in medical patients. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28(8):11721176.
  • 15
    Heeger PS, Backstrom JT. Heparin flushes and thrombocytopenia. Ann Intern Med 1986; 105(1):143.
  • 16
    Warkentin TE, Levine MN, Hirsh J, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med 1995; 332(20):13301336.
  • 17
    ASHP therapeutic position statement on the institutional use of 0.9% sodium chloride injection to maintain patency of peripheral indwelling intermittent infusion devices. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2006; 63(13):12731275.
  • 18
    Passannante A, Macik BG. The heparin flush syndrome: a cause of iatrogenic hemorrhage. Am J Med Sci 1988; 296(1):7173.
  • 19
    Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA, et al. Benefit of heparin in peripheral venous and arterial catheters: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 1998; 316(7136):969975.
  • 20
    Klenner AF, Fusch C, Rakow A, et al. Benefit and risk of heparin for maintaining peripheral venous catheters in neonates: a placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr 2003; 143(6):741745.
  • 21
    Tuten SH, Gueldner SH. Efficacy of sodium chloride versus dilute heparin for maintenance of peripheral intermittent intravenous devices. Appl Nurs Res 1991; 4(2):6371.
  • 22
    Shoaf J, Oliver S. Efficacy of normal saline injection with and without heparin for maintaining intermittent intravenous site. Appl Nurs Res 1992; 5(1):912.
  • 23
    Meyer BA, Little CJ, Thorp JA, et al. Heparin versus normal saline as a peripheral line flush in maintenance of intermittent intravenous lines in obstetric patients. J Obstet Gynaecol 1995; 85(3):433436.
  • 24
    Diquélou A, Barbaste C, Gabaig AM, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a therapeutic dose of unfractionated heparin (200 U/kg) administered subcutaneously or intravenously to healthy dogs. Vet Clin Pathol 2005; 34(3):237242.
  • 25
    Trepanier LA. Potential interactions between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drugs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2005; 15(4):248253.
  • 26
    Appleton DJ, Rand JS, Priest J, et al. Determination of reference values for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and insulin sensitivity tests in clinically normal cats. Am J Vet Res 2001; 62(4):630636.
  • 27
    Dewey CW, Bailey KS, Boothe DM, et al. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose intravenous levetiracetam administration in normal dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008; 18(2):153157.
  • 28
    Burkitt JM, Haskins SC, Aldrich J, et al. Effects of oral administration of a commercial activated charcoal suspension on serum osmolality and lactate concentration in the dog. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19(5):683686.
  • 29
    White ML, Crawley J, Rennie EA, et al. Examining the effectiveness of 2 solutions used to flush capped pediatric peripheral intravenous catheters. J Infus Nurs 2011; 34(4):260270.
  • 30
    Kadidal VV, Mayo DJ, Horne MK. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) due to heparin flushes: a report of three cases. J Intern Med 1999; 246(3):325329.
  • 31
    Ling E, Warkentin TE. Intraoperative heparin flushes and subsequent acute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Anesth 1998; 89(6):15671569.
  • 32
    Brieger DB, Mak K-H, Kottke-Marchant K, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 31(7):14491459.
  • 33
    Alaraj A, Wallace A, Tesoro E, et al. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: diagnosis and management. J Neurointerv Surg 2010; 2(4):371378.
  • 34
    Battistelli S, Genovese A, Gori T. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in surgical patients. Am J Surg 2010; 199(1):4351.
  • 35
    Ranze O, Ranze P, Magnani HN, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in paediatric patients—a review of the literature and a new case treated with danaparoid sodium. Eur J Pediatr 1999; 158(15):S130S133.
  • 36
    Jordan L. Should saline solution be used to maintain heparin locks? Focus Crit Care 1991; 18(2):144145, 147–148, 150–141.
  • 37
    Goode CJ, Titler M, Rakel B, et al. A meta-analysis of effects of heparin flush and saline flush: quality and cost implications. Nurs Res 1991; 40(6):324330.
  • 38
    Elliott KF, Fleeman LM, Rand JS. Using 20-gauge percutaneous peripheral catheters to reliably collect serial 4-mL blood samples from conscious dogs. Aust Vet J 2010; 88(6):215221.
  • 39
    Fulton RB Jr, Hauptman JG. In vitro and in vivo rates of fluid flow through catheters in peripheral veins of dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1991; 198(9):16221624.
  • 40
    Mudge B, Forcier D, Slattery MJ. Patency of 24-gauge peripheral intermittent infusion devices: a comparison of heparin and saline flush solutions. Pediatr Nurs 1998; 24(2):142145, 149.
  • 41
    Shah PS, Ng E, Sinha AK. Heparin for prolonging peripheral intravenous catheter use in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; (4):CD002774:127.
  • 42
    Maki DG, Ringer M. Risk factors for infusion-related phlebitis with small peripheral venous catheters. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114(10):845853.
  • 43
    Karadag A, Gorgulu S. Effect of two different short peripheral catheter materials on phlebitis. J Intraven Nurs 2000; 23(3):158166.
  • 44
    Rudin C, Nars PW. A comparative study of two different percutaneous venous catheters in newborn infants. Eur J Pediatr 1990; 150 (2):119124.
  • 45
    Everitt NJ, Madan M, Alexander DJ. et al. Fine bore silicone rubber and polyurethanecatheters for the delivery of complete intravenous nutrition via a peripheral vein. Clin Nutr 1993; 12(5):261265.
  • 46
    Kotter RW. Heparin vs saline for intermittent intravenous device maintenance in neonates. Neonatal Netw 1996; 15(6):4347.
  • 47
    Bolgiano C, Subramaniam P, Montanari J, et al. The effect of two concentrations of heparin on arterial catheter patency. Crit Care Nurse 1990; 10(5):4757.