Adverse reactions to equine-derived F(ab’)2-antivenin in 54 dogs envenomated by Vipera berus berus

Authors


  • The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Heidi S. Lund, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, NO-0033 Oslo, Norway. Email: heidi.sjetne.lund@nvh.no

Abstract

Objective

To describe the occurrence of acute and delayed adverse reactions following the administration of an equine-derived F(ab’)2-antivenin in dogs with Vipera berus berus envenomation.

Design

Prospective study (2006–2009).

Setting

Private small animal clinics and university small animal teaching hospital in Norway.

Animals

Fifty-four dogs with Vipera berus berus envenomation treated with F(ab’)2-antivenin.

Interventions

Administration of equine-derived antivenin for treatment of Vipera berus berus envenomation in dogs.

Measurements and Main Results

Acute adverse reactions to antivenin administration occurred in 4/54 dogs (7%), and facial swelling occurred in 2/54 dogs (4%), sudden respiratory distress in 1 dog, and vomiting occurred in 1 dog. The adverse reactions were self-limiting in 3 of the dogs, while 1 dog was treated with corticosteroids to reduce the facial swelling that occurred during administration of antivenin. No delayed adverse reactions believed to be associated with the antivenin administration were noted.

Conclusions

An occurrence of adverse effects comparable to the numbers reported in human medicine (10%) should be expected when administering F(ab’)2-antivenin to dogs with Vipera berus berus envenomation. The results are also comparable with rates of adverse effects reported with antivenin administration for crotalid-envenomated dogs. Further research is required to determine whether there is a relationship between adverse and the number of vials administered or repeated use in the same patient.

Ancillary