Acid base, electrolyte, glucose, and lactate values during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs and cats

Authors

  • Kate Hopper BVSc, PhD, DACVECC,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA
    • Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Kate Hopper, Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, Room 2112 Tupper Hall, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616. Email: khopper@ucdavis.edu

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  • Angela Borchers DVM, DACVIM, DACVECC,

    1. William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Steven E. Epstein DVM, DACVECC

    1. Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA
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  • The authors declare no conflicts of interests.

Abstract

Objective

To report acid base, electrolyte, glucose, and lactate values collected during or immediately after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in dogs and cats.

Design

Retrospective study.

Setting

University Teaching Hospital.

Animals

Thirty-two dogs and 10 cats.

Interventions

None.

Measurements and Main Results

Blood gas, electrolyte, glucose, and lactate values measured during CPR or within 5 minutes of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were retrospectively evaluated. The time of blood collection with respect to the occurrence of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA), the initiation of CPR or ROSC was noted. Forty-two venous blood samples were analyzed, 24 collected during CPR and 18 samples were collected within 5 minutes of ROSC. Metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia were evident in all samples in the study while an increased PvCO2 occurred in 88% of samples collected during CPR and in 61% of samples collected following ROSC. Hyperkalemia occurred in 65% of all cases, decreased ionized calcium was evident in 18%, hypoglycemia was evident in 21% while hyperglycemia was evident in 62%. There was no significant difference in any parameter evaluated between dogs and cats during CPR.

There was no significant difference of any variable measured during the first 15 minutes of CPA versus those measured more than 15 minutes following CPA. When the values measured during the first 5 minutes of ROSC were compared to those measured during CPR, the pH and PvO2 were significantly lower in the CPR group.

Conclusions

Biochemical abnormalities including metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia can be identified during CPR and immediately following ROSC. The therapeutic and prognostic relevance of these changes are yet to be defined and may prove to be useful to guide patient management in the future.

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