The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Acute bronchointerstitial pneumonia in two indoor cats exposed to the H1N1 influenza virus
Article first published online: 8 APR 2014
© Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Volume 24, Issue 6, pages 715–723, November/December 2014
How to Cite
Pigott, A. M., Haak, C. E., Breshears, M. A. and Linklater, A. K.J. (2014), Acute bronchointerstitial pneumonia in two indoor cats exposed to the H1N1 influenza virus. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 24: 715–723. doi: 10.1111/vec.12179
- Issue published online: 3 DEC 2014
- Article first published online: 8 APR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 FEB 2014
- Manuscript Received: 15 NOV 2012
- respiratory failure
To describe 2 cases of acute bronchointerstitial pneumonia in indoor domestic cats infected by anthroponotic transmission of pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus from their owners.
Case Series Summary
Two indoor domestic shorthair cats from the same household were evaluated for acute onset of respiratory distress. The owners had been recovering from flu-like illness at the time of presentation. Venous blood gas showed increased pvCO2 while thoracic radiographs revealed severe bronchointerstitial to alveolar patterns in both cats. The cats were treated with oxygen supplementation, antimicrobials, analgesics, diuretics, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, mechanical ventilation (1 cat), and supportive care. Despite initial improvement in the clinical condition of each cat, respiratory function deteriorated and ultimately both cats were euthanized. Gross and histopathologic examination confirmed diffuse, severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 viral testing by real time PCR was positive in 1 cat.
New or Unique Information Provided
These cases provide further evidence that domestic felids are susceptible to pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus, and the literature is briefly reviewed for treatment recommendations. H1N1 should be considered in the differential diagnosis for domestic cats presenting with peracute to acute onset of respiratory distress in the right context. While human-to-cat transmission of H1N1 seems probable in several reported cases, cat-to-human transmission has not been identified.