Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey
Article first published online: 23 NOV 2012
© 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists
Volume 16, Issue 5, pages 365–369, September 2013
How to Cite
Barsotti, G., Briganti, A., Spratte, J. R., Ceccherelli, R. and Breghi, G. (2013), Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16: 365–369. doi: 10.1111/vop.12008
- Issue published online: 2 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 23 NOV 2012
- diurnal raptor;
- intraocular pressure;
- nocturnal raptor;
- Schirmer tear test
To determine normal values for Schirmer tear test I and intraocular pressure in four European species of birds of prey.
Twenty birds from each of the following species: Eurasian Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Little owl (Athene noctua), Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus).
Both eyes of all birds (80 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a Schirmer tear test type I (STT-I) performed with commercially available strips and the assessment of the intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometry, employing the Tonopen-XL® device. The animals, which had been taken to a rescue center, were examined for ocular lesions prior to their eventual release into the wild. STT-I readings and IOP values were expressed as means ± standard deviation.
Schirmer tear test type I readings were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 3.12 ± 1.92 mm/min; Little owls: 3.5 ± 1.96 mm/min; Common buzzards: 12.47 ± 2.66 mm/min; European kestrels: 6.20 ± 3.67 mm/min. IOP values were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 11.21 ± 3.12 mmHg; Little owls: 9.83 ± 3.41 mmHg; Common buzzards: 17.2 ± 3.53 mmHg; European kestrels: 8.53 ± 1.59 mmHg.
The results of this study give representative values for STT-I and IOP in four of the most common species of birds of prey in Europe.