We describe the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of primary intraocular primitive neuroectodermal tumors in eight dogs. Four of eight tumors exhibited histological features similar to human retinoblastomas characterized by Flexner–Wintersteiner rosettes, and fleurettes, and demonstrated variable immunoreactivity for retinal markers opsin, S-antigen (S-Ag) and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). All dogs with tumors displaying histological and immunohistochemical features of retinal differentiation were ≤2 years of age. All tumors diagnosed as medulloepitheliomas (n = 4) did not display histological and immunohistochemical features of retinal differentiation and were present in dogs 7 years or older. Age of onset, in conjunction with immunohistochemistry for opsin, S-Ag, and IRBP, is an important aid in the differentiation of primary, primitive neuroectodermal tumors arising within the canine ciliary body, retina, and optic papilla.