This study aimed to evaluate and correlate intraocular pressure (IOP), endothelial cell density (CD), and hexagonality (HEX), and the aqueous humor prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in dogs with mature (MG, n = 8) and hypermature (HG, n = 8) cataracts. Eight laboratory beagles with no ocular abnormalities were included as a control group (CG). The IOP was measured using a digital applanation tonometer. Noncontact specular microscopy was used to evaluate CD and HEX. Samples of aqueous humor were used to determine prostaglandin E2 concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Data were compared by anova and Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, and possible correlations among the PGE2 aqueous concentration and corneal endothelium cell parameters were assessed by Person′s test (P < 0.05). Average values of IOP (P = 0.45) and CD (P = 0.39) were not significantly different between MG, HM, and CG. Average values of HEX were lower, and PGE2 concentration was increased in the MG and HG in comparison with CG (P < 0.05); however, such parameters did not change significantly between MG and HG (P > 0.05). PGE2 values did not correlate with IOP, CD, and HEX in any group (P > 0.05). Although there were a small number of dogs studied, our results demonstrated that cataract progression from mature to hypermature did not have a significant change in PGE2 aqueous concentration, IOP, corneal endothelial cell count, or morphology. In addition, PGE2 concentration was not correlated with parameters of the corneal endothelium or IOP in dogs with mature or hypermature cataracts.