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TRANSTHORACIC LUNG ULTRASOUND IN NORMAL DOGS AND DOGS WITH CARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA: A PILOT STUDY

Authors

  • Nathalie Rademacher,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences Section of Diagnostic Imaging, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA
    • Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Nathalie Rademacher, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. E-mail: nrademac@lsu.edu

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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Romain Pariaut,

    1. Cardiology, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Julie Pate,

    1. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences Section of Diagnostic Imaging, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA
    Current affiliation:
    1. Allpets Animal Hospital, Little Rock, AR
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  • Carley Saelinger,

    1. Cardiology, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA
    Current affiliation:
    1. Animal Specialty & Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA
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  • Michael T. Kearney,

    1. Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • Lorrie Gaschen

    1. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences Section of Diagnostic Imaging, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • Funding Support provided through a grant by the Merck-Merial Veterinary Scholars Program. Abstract presented at the ACVR Annual Meeting in Albuquerque, USA, 2011 and at the European Diagnostic Imaging Meeting in Giessen, Germany, 2010.

Abstract

Pulmonary edema is the most common complication of left-sided heart failure in dogs and early detection is important for effective clinical management. In people, pulmonary edema is commonly diagnosed based on transthoracic ultrasonography and detection of B line artifacts (vertical, narrow-based, well-defined hyperechoic rays arising from the pleural surface). The purpose of this study was to determine whether B line artifacts could also be useful diagnostic predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. Thirty-one normal dogs and nine dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were prospectively recruited. For each dog, presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema was based on physical examination, heartworm testing, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiography. A single observer performed transthoracic ultrasonography in all dogs and recorded video clips and still images for each of four quadrants in each hemithorax. Distribution, sonographic characteristics, and number of B lines per thoracic quadrant were determined and compared between groups. B lines were detected in 31% of normal dogs (mean 0.9 ± 0.3 SD per dog) and 100% of dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mean 6.2 ± 3.8 SD per dog). Artifacts were more numerous and widely distributed in dogs with congestive heart failure (P < 0.0001). In severe cases, B lines increased in number and became confluent. The locations of B line artifacts appeared consistent with locations of edema on radiographs. Findings from the current study supported the use of thoracic ultrasonography and detection of B lines as techniques for diagnosing cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs.

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