The challenge of stricter wastewater standards is resulting in configuration changes to wastewater treatment. As facilities upgrade, the type of sludge produced is changing, with growing quantities of secondary and chemical sludge at the expense of primary sludge. It is already understood that secondary sludge is harder to treat than its primary equivalent; therefore, increasing the quantity of this type of sludge will have detrimental impacts downstream. As legislation tightens further, extended aeration times may be required during processing to remove more nutrients. Work has shown that extended aeration further exacerbates the treatability of secondary sludge. This paper explains how tightening wastewater legislation fundamentally alters the nature of the sludge produced, and how these alterations impact further processing, especially with respect to sludge production and type; sludge energy content; performance of anaerobic digestion and dewatering, and potential for thermal energy recovery.