Veterinarians and veterinary medicine have been integral to the development of stem cell therapies. The contributions of large animal experimental models to the development and refinement of modern hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were noted nearly five decades ago. More recent advances in adult stem cell/regenerative cell therapies continue to expand knowledge of the basic biology and clinical applications of stem cells. A relatively liberal legal and ethical regulation of stem cell research in veterinary medicine has facilitated the development and in some instances clinical translation of a variety of cell-based therapies involving hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as other adult regenerative cells and recently embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. In fact, many of the pioneering developments in these fields of stem cell research have been achieved through collaborations of veterinary and human scientists. This review aims to provide an overview of the contribution of large animal veterinary models in advancing stem cell therapies for both human and clinical veterinary applications. Moreover, in the context of the “One Health Initiative,” the role veterinary patients may play in the future evolution of stem cell therapies for both human and animal patients will be explored.