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Integrated systematics of the Poecilimon luschani species group (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae): radiation as a chain of populations in a small heterogeneous area

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Corresponding author. E-mail: ciplak@akdeniz.edu.tr

Abstract

The Poecilimon luschani species group (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Phaneropterinae), ranging along a narrow line in West Anatolia and the Balkan mountains, has been revised using integrated data from morphology, bioacoustics, and DNA sequences of two matrilineal markers. A taxonomic approach neutral with respect to existing species/subspecies was applied to the sampled populations. The male calling song showed poor variation amongst the populations. Of the morphological structures, only the male cerci and male subgenital plate offer diagnostic characters but they are secondary gains or losses in most cases. Phylogenetic analyses applied to a data matrix consisting of concatenated 1401 bp long sequences of 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I produced from specimens of the group resulted in trees with similar topologies. Both genetic and phenotypic data confirmed the species status of the geographically discrete Izmir, Balkan, Aydın, Kütahya, and Balıkesir populations. However, 13 populations located in the southern part of the group's range in Antalya and Muğla Provinces of Turkey present a complex phylogenetic and morphological pattern of three morphological units, but two phylogroups. By integrating song, morphology, and phylogenetic data the following conclusions were made. The species status of Poecilimon ledereri and Poecilimon orbelicus was confirmed. The Aydın population was re-established as a valid species, P. tuncayi stat. rev. The Kütahya population was elevated to species level as Poecilimon egrigozi Ünal, 2005, stat. nov. The Balıkesir population is here described as a new species Poecilimon helleri sp. nov. The southern lineage of the species group exhibits characteristics of a chain species with three subspecies. Poecilimon luschani is retained as the species name by priority and the Poecilimon birandi is considered its subspecies as Poecilimon luschani birandi stat. nov. A new subspecies Poecilimon luschani chobanovi ssp. nov. is described. The phylogenetic relationships amongst the proposed taxa are as follows: P. ledereri + (P. orbelicus + (P. tuncayi + (P. egrigozi + P. helleri) + (P. luschani luschani + P. luschani birandi + P. luschani chobanovi))). © 2013 The Linnean Society of London

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