Identification and Analysis of the First 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus from U.S. Feral Swine


A. Clavijo. Pan American Health Organization, Av. Presidente Kennedy, 7778, Duque de Caxias CEP, 25040-004, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Tel.: +55 21 3661 9080; Fax: +55 21 3661 9001; E-mail:


The first case of pandemic H1N1 influenza (pH1N1) virus in feral swine in the United States was identified in Texas through the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wildlife Services’ surveillance program. Two samples were identified as pandemic influenza by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Full-genome Sanger sequencing of all eight influenza segments was performed. In addition, Illumina deep sequencing of the original diagnostic samples and their respective virus isolation cultures were performed to assess the feasibility of using an unbiased whole-genome linear target amplification method and multiple sample sequencing in a single Illumina GAIIx lane. Identical sequences were obtained using both techniques. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all gene segments belonged to the pH1N1 (2009) lineage. In conclusion, we have identified the first pH1N1 isolate in feral swine in the United States and have demonstrated the use of an easy unbiased linear amplification method for deep sequencing of multiple samples.