Get access

Surveillance of Parapoxvirus Among Ruminants in Virginia and Connecticut

Authors

  • A. A. Roess,

    Corresponding author
    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA
    2. Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    • Correspondence:

      A. A. Roess. Department of Global Health, George Washington University, 2175 K Street, NW Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037, USA. Tel.: 202-994-0921; E-mail: aroess@gwu.edu

    Search for more papers by this author
  • A. M. McCollum,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA
    2. Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • K. Gruszynski,

    1. Virginia Department of Health, Richmond, VA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • H. Zhao,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • W. Davidson,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • N. Lafon,

    1. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, VA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • T. Engelmeyer,

    1. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, VA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • B. Moyer,

    1. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, VA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • C. Godfrey,

    1. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, VA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • H. Kilpatrick,

    1. Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Wildlife Division, North Franklin, CT, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • A. Labonte,

    1. Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Wildlife Division, North Franklin, CT, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • J. Murphy,

    1. Virginia Department of Health, Richmond, VA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • D. S. Carroll,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Y. Li,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • I. K. Damon

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

Summary

In 2008, two deer hunters in Virginia and Connecticut were infected with a unique strain of pseudocowpox virus, a parapoxvirus. To estimate the prevalence of this virus, and in an attempt to define the reservoir, Parapoxvirus surveillance was undertaken between November 2009 and January 2010. 125 samples from four ruminant species (cows, goat, sheep and white-tailed deer) were collected in Virginia, and nine samples from white-tailed deer were collected in Connecticut. We found no evidence that the parapoxvirus species that infected the deer hunters is circulating among domesticated ruminants or white-tailed deer. However, parapoxvirus DNA of a different parapoxvirus species, bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), was detected in 31 samples obtained from asymptomatic cattle in Virginia. Parapoxvirus DNA–positive cattle originated from the same counties indicating probable transmission among animals. Molecular analysis identified BPSV as the parapoxvirus affecting animals. Asymptomatic parapoxvirus infections in livestock, particularly young animals, may be common, and further investigation will inform our knowledge of virus transmission.

Ancillary