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Prevention and Control of Rabies in an Age of Global Travel: A Review of Travel- and Trade-Associated Rabies Events – United States, 1986–2012

Authors

  • E. W. Lankau,

    1. Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA
    2. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • N. J. Cohen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
    • Correspondence:

      N. J. Cohen. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop C-01, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. Tel.: 404 639 7018; Fax: 404 639 3451; E-mail: ncohen@cdc.gov

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  • E. S. Jentes,

    1. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • L. E. Adams,

    1. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
    2. College of Public Health and College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
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  • T. R. Bell,

    1. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
    2. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists Applied Epidemiology Fellowship Program, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • J. D. Blanton,

    1. Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, NCEZID, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • D. Buttke,

    1. Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA
    2. Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • G. G. Galland,

    1. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • A. M. Maxted,

    1. Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA
    2. Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA
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  • D. M. Tack,

    1. Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA
    2. Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, NCEZID, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • S. H. Waterman,

    1. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • C. E. Rupprecht,

    1. Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS, USA
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  • N. Marano

    1. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
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Summary

Rabies prevention and control efforts have been successful in reducing or eliminating virus circulation regionally through vaccination of specific reservoir populations. A notable example of this success is the elimination of canine rabies virus variant from the United States and many other countries. However, increased international travel and trade can pose risks for rapid, long-distance movements of ill or infected persons or animals. Such travel and trade can result in human exposures to rabies virus during travel or transit and could contribute to the re-introduction of canine rabies variant or transmission of other viral variants among animal host populations. We present a review of travel- and trade-associated rabies events that highlight international public health obligations and collaborative opportunities for rabies prevention and control in an age of global travel. Rabies is a fatal disease that warrants proactive coordination among international public health and travel industry partners (such as travel agents, tour companies and airlines) to protect human lives and to prevent the movement of viral variants among host populations.

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