• Myanmar;
  • AI ;
  • H5;
  • risk factors


The Ayeyarwaddy delta region in the south-west of Myanmar is the main agricultural and rice-growing area. The region has a high density of duck and backyard chicken populations with low biosecurity. The objective of this study was to analyse risk factors for avian influenza (H5) in the Ayeyarwaddy delta region, Myanmar. A case–control risk factor study was conducted from April to June 2010 by individual interviews including risk factor questionnaires given to duck farmers (n = 50) in five townships in the Ayeyarwaddy delta region, Myanmar. Risk factor analyses were conducted using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression model with backward stepwise (wald) method. The results showed significant risk factors for AI (H5) sero-positivity in ducks were wooden egg box containers (OR = 52.7, 95% CI = 2.34–1188, P = 0.013) and water sourced from wetlands (OR = 30.7, 95% CI = 1.96–481.6, P = 0.015). Conversely, the cleaning of reusable egg containers was determined as a protective factor (OR = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.00–0.42, P = 0.01). In conclusion, this study identified risk factors for AI (H5) in duck farms and the importance of avian influenza prevention and control.