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Spatial Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Cattle in Relation to Night Roosts Of Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) in Ohio, USA (2007–2009)

Authors

  • A. L. Swirski,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
    • Correspondence:

      A. L. Swirski and D. L. Pearl. Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Tel.: +519-824-4120; Ext.: 54728 (ALS) and 52748 (DLP); Fax: +519-763-3117; E-mails: aswirski@uoguelph.ca (ALS) and dpearl@uoguelph.ca (DLP)

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  • D. L. Pearl,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
    • Correspondence:

      A. L. Swirski and D. L. Pearl. Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Tel.: +519-824-4120; Ext.: 54728 (ALS) and 52748 (DLP); Fax: +519-763-3117; E-mails: aswirski@uoguelph.ca (ALS) and dpearl@uoguelph.ca (DLP)

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  • M. L. Williams,

    1. Food and Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center (OARDC), The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA
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  • H. J. Homan,

    1. USDA, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Bismarck, ND, USA
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  • G. M. Linz,

    1. USDA, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Bismarck, ND, USA
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  • N. Cernicchiaro,

    1. Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA
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  • J. T. LeJeune

    1. Food and Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center (OARDC), The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA
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Summary

The goal of our study was to use spatial scan statics to determine whether the night roosts of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) act as point sources for the dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 among dairy farms. From 2007 to 2009, we collected bovine faecal samples (n = 9000) and starling gastrointestinal contents (n = 430) from 150 dairy farms in northeastern Ohio, USA. Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 recovered from these samples were subtyped using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Generated MLVA types were used to construct a dendrogram based on a categorical multistate coefficient and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Using a focused spatial scan statistic, we identified statistically significant spatial clusters among dairy farms surrounding starling night roosts, with an increased prevalence of E. coli O157:H7-positive bovine faecal pats, increased diversity of distinguishable MLVA types and a greater number of isolates with MLVA types from bovine-starling clades versus bovine-only clades. Thus, our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that starlings have a role in the dissemination of E. coli O157:H7 among dairy farms, and further research into starling management is warranted.

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