SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
zsc12015-sup-0001-AppendixS1-S11.pdfapplication/PDF15463K

Appendix S1. Recently metamorphosed juveniles of Osteocephalus and of juveniles previously assigned to that genus. The constant pattern in the colouration of juveniles of Osteocephalus (sensu this work) is proposed as a morphological synapomorphy for the genus. Osteocephalus taurinus Species Group: (a) O. taurinus (Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil); (b) O. oophagus (Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil). Osteocephalus leprieurii Species Group: (c) O. leprieurii (Arataï, French Guiana). Osteocephalus planiceps Species Group: (d) O. castaneicola (San Antonio, Pando, Bolivia); (e) O. deridens (Iquitos, Loreto, Peru); (f) O. leoniae (Tarapoto, San Martín, Peru); (g) O. planiceps (Jatun Sacha, Napo, Ecuador). Osteocephalus buckleyi Species Group: (h) O. buckleyi (Jatun Sacha, Napo, Ecuador); (i) O. carri (Picachos, Huila, Colombia); (j) O. mimeticus (Tarapoto, San Martín, Peru); (k) O. mutabor (Cordillera Galeras, Napo, Ecuador); (l) O. verruciger (Reventador, Sucumbíos, Ecuador). Dryaderces pearsoni (m) (Rurrenabaque, Beni, Bolivia). Itapotihyla langsdorffii (n) (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). Tepuihyla rimarum (o) (Ptari-tepui, Bolívar, Venezuela) (not to scale).

Appendix S2. Localities, voucher information and GenBank accession numbers for DNA sequences used (in bold: sequences produced for this study). Abbreviations used for vouchers (unless downloaded from GenBank): AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. APL: Albertina P. Lima, Laboratório de Vertebrados da Ecologia - INPA collection, Manaus, Brazil. AJC: Andrew J. Crawford field numbers. CBF: Colección Boliviana de Fauna, La Paz, Bolivia. CFBH Collection Célio F. B. Haddad, Departamento de Zoologia, I.B., UNESP, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil. CPI: Coastal Plains Institute and Land Conservancy (Field numbers of D. Bruce Means), Tallahassee, FL, USA. EPN: Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador. GGU: Giussepe Gagliardi-Urrutia field numbers at UNAP (Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana, Iquitos, Peru). IRSNB: Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium. JMP: José M. Padial field numbers. KHJ-F: Karl-Heinz Jungfer field numbers, to be divided between MUSM and MTD. MACN: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Angel Gallardo”—CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. MAR: Marco Rada field numbers. MHNC Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Cusco, Peru. MHNLS: Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas, Venezuela. MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain. MUSM: Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. MSH: Marinus S. Hoogmoed field numbers. MTD: Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen, Dresden, Germany. MTR: Miguel T. Rodrigues field numbers. MZUSP: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. NMP: National Museum, Zoology, Praha, Czech Republic. PHV: Paula Hanna Valdujo field numbers (to be accessioned in MZUSP). PK: Philippe Kok field numbers deposited at IRSNB. ROM: Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada. SMNS: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany. SMS: Sergio Marques de Souza field numbers (to be accessioned in MZUSP). TG: Taran Grant field numbers. TNHC: Texas Natural History Collections, Austin, USA. UA: Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. Vogt: Richard Vogt field numbers. Locality coordinates are given for specimens newly accessed to GenBank.

Appendix S3. Models of nucleotide substitution for the partitions used in the maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses.

Appendix S4. (a) Inter- and intraspecific uncorrected genetic distances (diagonal and below the diagonal respectively) within members of the Osteocephalus taurinus species group (sample size in parentheses) inferred from 551 aligned characters of a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S gene. ss = sensu stricto. (b) Inter- and intraspecific uncorrected genetic distances (diagonal and below the diagonal respectively) within members of the Osteocephalus planiceps species group (sample size in parentheses) inferred from 551 aligned characters of a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S gene. (c) Inter- and intraspecific uncorrected genetic distances (diagonal and below the diagonal respectively) within members of the Osteocephalus leprieurii species group (sample size in parentheses) inferred from 551 aligned characters of a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S gene. ss = sensu stricto. (d) Inter- and intraspecific uncorrected genetic distances (diagonal and below the diagonal respectively) within members of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species group (sample size in parentheses) inferred from 551 aligned characters of a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S gene. ss = sensu stricto.

Appendix S5. Phylogenetic relationships of Dryaderces, Osteocephalus, Tepuihyla, and outgroups inferred from a maximum likelihood analysis, executed in the program Garli 2.0, of a partitioned matrix of a static alignment (generated with a multiple sequence alignment in Clustal-W). Partitions and their respective models of sequence evolution are detailed in Appendix S3. Not all loci are available for all terminals.

Appendix S6. (1–6) Phylogenetic relationships of Dryaderces, Osteocephalus, Tepuihyla, and outgroups inferred from maximum parsimony analysis under a static alignment (generated with a multiple sequence alignment in Clustal-W) in the program T.N.T., Willi Hennig Society Edition. This topology reflects one of the 4797 most parsimonious trees (length 13 254 steps), with black nodes on dots indicating collapsed clades in strict consensus tree; not all loci are available for all terminals. Tips are labelled with the initial and tentative field identifications. See Appendix S2 and/or Figs 1–4 for current classification.

Appendix S7. List of some of the molecular transformations common to all most parsimonious trees of the static parsimony analysis, supporting the monophyly of each of the three genera discussed in the text. Positions correspond to the alignment stored in Dryad Repository DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.j04vf.

Appendix S8. (1) Map of localities of sampled exemplars of Dryaderces gen. n. in central and southern Amazonia. (2) Map of localities of sampled exemplars of the Osteocephalus alboguttatus Species Group. (3a) Map of localities of sampled exemplars of the Osteocephalus buckleyi Species Group (part). (3b). Map of localities of sampled exemplars of the O. buckleyi Species Group (part). (4) Map of localities of sampled exemplars of the Osteocephalus leprieurii Species Group. (5) Map of localities of sampled exemplars of the Osteocephalus planiceps Species Group. (6) Map of localities of sampled exemplars of the Osteocephalus taurinus Species Group. (7) Map of localities of sampled exemplars of Tepuihyla on the Guiana Shield.

Appendix S9. Fully inflated vocal sacs in Osteocephalus: (a) paired, lateral with subgular expansion (O. leprieurii, pond breeder); (b) and (c) paired, lateral with subgular expansion (O. verruciger, stream breeder); (d) and (e) paired, lateral with subgular expansion (O. buckleyi, stream breeder); (f) single, subgular (O. oophagus, phytotelm breeder).

Appendix S10. Egg clutches of Osteocephalus: (a) surface film (O. taurinus, pond breeder); (b) clutch attached to a bromeliad leaf axil at surface level (O. oophagus, phytotelm breeder); (c) surface film of a phytotelm breeder at a spacious site (O. planiceps) forming during egg-laying.

Appendix S11.Types of amplexus in Osteocephalus: (a) axillary (O. yasuni, pond breeder); (b) axillary (O. verruciger, stream breeder); (c) gular (O. leoniae, phytotelm breeder); (d) gular (O. deridens, phytotelm breeder); (e) axillary O. oophagus, phytotelm breeder.

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.