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zsc12042-sup-0001-FigS1.pdfapplication/PDF1633KFig. S1. Known distribution of the Bugula neritina complex. Type S is represented by blue circles, Type D by red circles and Type N by yellow circles. Samples from localities in grey were not included in the population genetic analyses. Numbers correspond to the superscript numbers below, where references are given to acknowledge the sampling carried out over the past one and a half-decades. Abbreviations: NP, north Pacific (1Hawaii- Mackie et al. 2006); NEP, north-eastern Pacific (2northern California – Davidson & Haygood 1999; Mackie et al. 2006; present study/3central California – present study/4southern California – Davidson & Haygood 1999; Lim-Fong et al. 2008); NWA, north-western Atlantic (5 New York and Delaware – McGovern & Hellberg 2003; present study/6Maryland – present study/7Virginia, present study/8North Carolina – Davidson & Haygood 1999; McGovern & Hellberg 2003; Lim 2004; present study/9Florida – McGovern & Hellberg 2003; present study); SF, Strait of Florida (10Florida – present study); GM, Gulf of Mexico (11Florida and South Terrebonne Platform – McGovern & Hellberg 2003); CaS, Caribbean Sea (12Curaçao – Mackie et al. 2006); SWA, south-western Atlantic (13Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo – present study/14Paraná and Santa Catarina – present study); ECh, English Channel (15southern England - Mackie et al. 2006; Ryland et al. 2011); NEA, north-eastern Atlantic (16Galicia – present study; 17Albufeira – Ryland et al. 2011); SEA, south-eastern Atlantic (18Namibia – Lim 2004); PhS, Philippine Sea (19Wakayama – Okuyama et al. 2006); EChS, East China Sea (20South Korea – Jang & Hwang 2009; Lee et al. 2011); SChS, South China Sea (21Hong Kong – Mackie et al. 2006); EIO, eastern Indian Ocean (22, 23Western Australia – Mackie et al. 2006; present study); GAB, Great Australian Bight (24 Western Australia – Mackie et al. 2006; /25South Australia – Mackie et al. 2006); BS, Bass Strait (26Victoria – Mackie et al. 2006); TS, Tasman Sea (27Tasmania – Mackie et al. 2006; /28New South Wales – Mackie et al. 2006; present study); CoS, Coral Sea (29Townsville, Queensland – present study/30Cairns, Queensland – Mackie et al. 2006).
zsc12042-sup-0002-FigS2.pdfapplication/PDF1720KFig. S2. Maximum likelihood (A), neighbor-joining (B) and maximum parsimony (C) analyses of the concatenated 5-gene data set for the Bugula neritina complex. All nodes with <0.70 of bootstrap support were collapsed. The branch length scales indicate the number of substitutions per site. Abbreviation: conc#, identification of the concatenated partitions (See details in Table S1).
zsc12042-sup-0003-FigS3.pdfapplication/PDF1495KFig. S3. Single-gene Bayesian phylogenies for the Bugula neritina complex. All nodes with <0.95 posterior probability were collapsed. The branch length scale indicates the number of substitutions per site. A, COI-5P; B, COI-3P; C, 16S; D, DYN; E, VDAC. Abbreviation: H#, haplotype ID (See details in Tables S1 and S3).
zsc12042-sup-0004-FigS4.pdfapplication/PDF1715KFig. S4. COI-5P haplotype network for Bugula neritina Type S. The size of the colourful circles is proportional to the haplotype frequency; black traces and black circles indicate the number of mutational steps between haplotypes.
zsc12042-sup-0005-TableS1.xlsapplication/msexcel86KTable S1. Data of collected material for the Bugula neritina complex and the outgroup Bugula species.
zsc12042-sup-0006-TableS2.docxWord document79KTable S2. Primers used, PCR product sizes in bp, cycling conditions and species of Bugula amplified. The annealing positions of primers in the complete mitochondrial genome of Bugula neritina (NC_010197) are provided in square brackets. Abbreviations: F, forward; R, reverse.
zsc12042-sup-0007-TableS3.docxWord document118KTable S3. Sequences retrieved from GenBank of the COI-5P and 16S for the Bugula neritina complex. Abbreviations: n, number of colonies sequenced; Prev hap, haplotype definition from original publications; Cur hap, haplotype definition after this study; Bp, segment size in base pairs.
zsc12042-sup-0008-TableS4.xlsxapplication/msexcel26KTable S4. Sequences of Bugula neritina Type S used for population genetics and sea surface temperature (SST) analyses. Temperature estimates (°C) for the sampled regions were obtained at the summer/winter solstice in January/June 2002 and January/June 2011. Sequences in blue were obtained from colonies collected at depths >4 m, and hence were not included in the SST analyses. Abbreviations: Temp, temperature; No/So Hemisphere, Northern/Southern Hemisphere; winter SST and summer SST, averages of temperature estimates recorded at each locality; Hap, haplotype.
zsc12042-sup-0009-TableS5.docxWord document63KTable S5. Polymorphic sites found in the COI-5P region within each Type of the Bugula neritina complex. Homologous positions in the complete mitochondrial genome of Bugula neritina (NC_010197) are provided in bold at the top of the table. Only the nucleotide positions containing polymorphisms within Types are shown, i.e., the polymorphisms amongst haplotypes of Types S, N and D are not represented.

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