1. The Nagel anomaloscope, neutral points and dichromatic matches to a spectral green light identified a population of seventy red-green dichromats. 2. The anomaloscope settings allow the calculation of the relative action spectrum of the match at the wave-length of the red (645 nm) and green (535 nm) primaries. The distribution of this ratio is bimodal; there are two clusters with a gap of about 0-75 long units between. Among the thirty-eight deuteranopes there are wide differences in anomaloscope matches; similar differences appear among the thirty-two protanopes. 3. Retinal densitometry of the foveas of fifteen of the deuteranopes is compared and contrasted with measurements on trichromats. In the former, only one photolabile pigment is found in the red-green region of the spectrum; normals always have two. The view of Rushton (1965a) that deuteranopes have erythrolabe but no measurable chlorolabe is confirmed for each member of this group. 4. Simple deuteranomalous show two red-green cone pigments. The difference spectra of extreme deuteranomalous are very similar to those found in deuteranopia. 5. Individual differnce in kinetics (photosensitivity, time constant of regeneration) and in the density and lambdamax of the difference spectrum of erythrolabe in deuteranopia are appreciable; the reasons for these differences are not clear.