SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abbiw-Jackson, R. M. & Langford, W. F. (1998). Gain-induced oscillations in blood pressure. Journal of Mathematical Biology 37, 203234.
  • Abdel-Rahman, A. R., Merrill, R. H. & Wooles, W. R. (1994). Gender-related differences in the baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate in normotensive humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 77, 606613.
  • Akselrod, S., Gordon, D., Madwed, J. B., Snidman, N. C., Shannon, D. C. & Cohen, R. J. (1985). Hemodynamic regulation: Investigation by spectral analysis. American Journal of Physiology 249, H867875.
  • Badra, L. J., Cooke, W. H., Hoag, J. B., Crossman, A. A., Kuusela, T. A., Tahvanainen, K. U. & Eckberg, D. L. (2001). Respiratory modulation of human autonomic rhythms. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology 280, H26742688.
  • Barbieri, R., Bianchi, A. M., Triedman, J. K., Mainardi, L. T., Cerutti, S. & Saul, J. P. (1997). Model dependency of multivariate autoregressive spectral analysis. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 16, 7485.
  • Barnett, S. R., Morin, R. J., Kiely, D. K., Gagnon, M., Azhar, G., Knight, E. L., Nelson, J. C. & LipsitZ, L. A. (1999). Effects of age and gender on autonomic control of blood pressure dynamics. Hypertension 33, 11951200.
  • Baselli, G., Cerutti, S., Civardi, S., Malliani, A. & Pagani, M. (1988). Cardiovascular variability signals: Towards the identification of a closed-loop model of the neural control mechanisms. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 35, 10331046.
  • Bernardi, L., Keller, F., Sanders, M., Reddy, P. S., Griffith, B., Meno, F. & Pinsky, M. R. (1989). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in the denervated human heart. Journal of Applied Physiology 67, 14471455.
  • Bertram, D., Barres, C., Cuisinaud, G. & Julien, C. (1998). The arterial baroreceptor reflex of the rat exhibits positive feedback properties at the frequency of Mayer waves. Journal of Physiology 513, 251261.
  • Bigger, J. T., Fleiss, J. L., Rolnitzky, L. M. & Steinman, R. C. (1993). The ability of several short-term measures of RR variability to predict mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation 88, 927934.
  • Bigger, J. T. Jr, Fleiss, J. L., Steinman, R. C., Rolnitzky, L. M., Kleiger, R. E. & Rottman, J. N. (1992a). Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation 85, 164171.
  • Bigger, J. T. Jr, Fleiss, J. L., Steinman, R. C., Rolnitzky, L. M., Kleiger, R. E. & Rottman, J. N. (1992b). Correlations among time and frequency domain measures of heart period variability two weeks after acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 69, 891898.
  • Bigger, J. T. Jr, Steinman, R. C., Rolnitzky, L. M., Fleiss, J. L., Albrecht, P. & Cohen, R. J. (1996). Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants. Circulation 93, 21422151.
  • Box, G. E., Jenkins, G. M. & Reinsel, G. C. (1994). Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs .
  • Brandenberger, G., Follenius, M., Muzet, A., Ehrhart, J. & Schieber, J. P. (1985). Ultradian oscillations in plasma renin activity: Their relationships to meals and sleep stages. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 61, 280284.
  • Brown, T. E., Beightol, L. A., Koh, J. & Eckberg, D. L. (1993). Important influence of respiration on human R-R interval power spectra is largely ignored. Journal of Applied Physiology 75, 23102317.
  • Cavalcanti, S. & Belardinelli, E. (1996). Modeling of cardiovascular variability using a differential delay equation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 43, 982989.
  • Cerutti, C., Barres, C. & Paultre, C. (1994). Baroreflex modulation of blood pressure and heart rate variabilities in rats: Assessment by spectral analysis. American Journal of Physiology 266, H19932000.
  • Cerutti, S., Carrault, G., Cluitmans, P. J., Kinie, A., Lipping, T., Nikolaidis, N., Pitas, I. & Signorini, M. G. (1996). Non-linear algorithms for processing biological signals. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 51, 5173.
  • Chon, K. H., Mukkamala, R., Toska, K., Mullen, T. J., Armoundas, A. A. & Cohen, R. J. (1997). Linear and nonlinear system identification of autonomic heart-rate modulation. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 16, 96105.
  • Chon, K. H., Mullen, T. J. & Cohen, R. J. (1996). A dual-input nonlinear system analysis of autonomic modulation of heart rate. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 43, 530544.
  • Christini, D. J., Bennett, F. M., Lutchen, K. R., Ahmed, H. M., Hausdorff, J. M. & Oriol, N. (1995). Application of linear and nonlinear time series modeling to heart rate dynamics analysis. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 42, 411415.
  • Clement, D. L., De Pue, N., Jordaens, L. J. & Packet, L. (1985). Adrenergic and vagal influences on blood pressure variability. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 7, 159166.
  • Coker, R., Koziell, A., Oliver, C. & Smith, S. E. (1984). Does the sympathetic nervous system influence sinus arrhythmia in man? Evidence from combined autonomic blockade. Journal of Physiology 356, 459464.
  • Conci, F., Di Rienzo, M. & Castiglioni, P. (2001). Blood pressure and heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity before and after brain death. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 71, 621631.
  • Davy, K. P., Seals, D. R. & Tanaka, H. (1998). Augmented cardiopulmonary and integrative sympathetic baroreflexes but attenuated peripheral vasoconstriction with age. Hypertension 32, 298304.
  • de Boer, R. W., Karemaker, J. M. & Strackee, J. (1985). Spectrum of a series of point events, generated by the integral pulse frequency modulation model. Medicine and Biology in Engineering and Computing 23, 138142.
  • de Boer, R. W., Karemaker, J. M. & Strackee, J. (1987). Hemodynamic fluctuations and baroreflex sensitivity in humans: A beat-to-beat model. American Journal of Physiology 253, H680689.
  • di Virgilio, V., Barbieri, R., Mainardi, L., Strano, S. & Cerutti, S. (1997). A multivariate time-variant AR method for the analysis of heart rate and arterial blood pressure. Medical Engineering and Physics 19, 109124.
  • Dornhorst, A. C., Howard, P. & Leathart, G. L. (1952). Respiratory variations in blood pressure. Circulation 6, 553558.
  • Duong, Q. P. (1984). On the choice of the order of autoregressive models: A ranking and selection approach. Journal of Time Series Analysis 5, 145157.
  • Ebert, T. J., Morgan, B. J., Barney, J. A., Denahan, T. & Smith, J. J. (1992). Effects of aging on baroreflex regulation of sympathetic activity in humans. American Journal of Physiology 263, H798803.
  • Eckberg, D. L. (1980). Nonlinearities of the human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex. Circulation Research 47, 208216.
  • Eckberg, D. L., Nerhed, C. & Wallin, B. G. (1985). Respiratory modulation of muscle sympathetic and vagal cardiac outflow in man. Journal of Physiology 365, 181196.
  • Fan, J. & Gijbels, I. (1996). Local polynomial modelling and its applications. In Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, vol. 66, pp. 341356. Chapman & Hall, New York .
  • Fouad, F. M., Tarazi, R. C., Ferrario, C. M., Fighaly, S. & Alicandri, C. (1984). Assessment of parasympathetic control of heart rate by a noninvasive method. American Journal of Physiology 246, H838842.
  • Fredericq, L. (1882). De l'influence de la respiration sur la circulation. Les oscillations respiratoires de la pression arterielle chez le chien. Archives de Biologie (Paris) 3, 55100.
  • Furlan, R., GuETTIZZ, S., Crivellaro, W., Dassi, S., Tinelli, M., Baselli, G., Cerutti, S., Lombardi, F., Pagani, M. & Malliani, A. (1990). Continuous 24-hour assessment of the neural regulation of systemic arterial pressure and RR variabilities in ambulant subjects. Circulation 81, 537547.
  • Gilbey, M. P., Jordan, D., Richter, D. W. & Spyer, K. M. (1984). Synaptic mechanisms involved in the inspiratory modulation of vagal cardio-inhibitory neurones in the cat. Journal of Physiology 356, 6578.
  • Gootman, P. M. & Cohen, M. I. (1974). The interrelationships between sympathetic discharge and central respiratory drive. In Central Rhythms and Regulation, ed. Umbach, W. & Koepchen, H. P., pp. 127144. Hippokrates Verlag, Stuttgart .
  • Gribbin, B., Pickering, T. G., Sleight, P. & Peto, R. (1971). Effect of age and high blood pressure on baroreflex sensitivity in man. Circulation Research 29, 424431.
  • Grossman, P. & Kollai, M. (1993). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiac vagal tone, and respiration: Within- and between-individual relations. Psychophysiology 30, 486495.
  • Guyton, A. C., Batson, H. M., Smith, C. M. & Armstrong, G. G. (1951). Method for studying the competence of the body's blood pressure regulatory mechanisms and effect of pressoreceptor denervation. American Journal of Physiology 164, 360368.
  • Guyton, A. C. & Harris, J. W. (1951). Pressoreceptor-autonomic oscillation: A probable cause of vasomotor waves. American Journal of Physiology 165, 158166.
  • GuETTIZZ, S., Cogliati, C., Broggi, C., CaroIZZ, C., Caldiroli, D., Lombardi, F. & Malliani, A. (1994). Influences of neural mechanisms on heart period and arterial pressure variabilities in quadriplegic patients. American Journal of Physiology 266, H11121120.
  • Hales, S. (1733). Statical Essays: concerning Haemastaticks; or, An Account of some Hydraulick and Hydrostatical Experiments made on the Blood and Blood-vessels of Animals. Printed for W. Innys and R. Manby, London .
  • Hamner, J. W., Morin, R. J., Rudolph, J. L. & Taylor, J. A. (2001). Inconsistent link between low-frequency oscillations: R-R interval responses to augmented Mayer waves. Journal of Applied Physiology 90, 15591564.
  • Hayano, J., Taylor, J. A., Yamada, A., Mukai, S., Hori, R., Asakawa, T., Yokoyama, K., Watanabe, Y., Takata, K. & Fujinami, T. (1993). Continuous assessment of hemodynamic control by complex demodulation of cardiovascular variability. American Journal of Physiology 264, H12291238.
  • Hayano, J., Yasuma, F., Okada, A., Mukai, S. & Fujinami, T. (1996). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia. A phenomenon improving pulmonary gas exchange and circulatory efficiency. Circulation 94, 842847.
  • Hedman, A. E., Hartikainen, J. E., Tahvanainen, K. U. & Hakumaki, M. O. (1995). The high frequency component of heart rate variability reflects cardiac parasympathetic modulation rather than parasympathetic ‘tone’. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 155, 267273.
  • Heneghan, C. & McDarby, G. (2000). Establishing the relation between detrended fluctuation analysis and power spectral density analysis for stochastic processes. Physical Review. E, Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics 62, 61036110.
  • Hering, E. (1869). Uber den einfluss der atmung auf den kreislauf i. Uber athenbewegungen des gefasssystems. Sitzungsberichte Kaiserlich Akad Wissenschaft Mathemat-Naturwissenschaft Classe 60, 829856.
  • Hirsch, J. A. & Bishop, B. (1981). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in humans: How breathing pattern modulates heart rate. American Journal of Physiology 241, H620629.
  • Honzikova, N., Fiser, B. & Honzik, J. (1992). Noninvasive determination of baroreflex sensitivity in man by means of spectral analysis. Physiological Research 41, 3137.
  • Hughson, R. L., Quintin, L., Annat, G., Yamamoto, Y. & Gharib, C. (1993). Spontaneous baroreflex by sequence and power spectral methods in humans. Clinical Physiology 13, 663676.
  • Innes, J. A., De Cort, S. C., Kox, W. & GuZ, A. (1993). Within-breath modulation of left ventricular function during normal breathing and positive-pressure ventilation in man. Journal of Physiology 460, 487502.
  • Inoue, K., Miyake, S., Kumashiro, M., Ogata, H., Ueta, T. & Akatsu, T. (1991). Power spectral analysis of blood pressure variability in traumatic quadriplegic humans. American Journal of Physiology 260, H842847.
  • Ivanov, P. C., Amaral, L. A., Goldberger, A. L., Havlin, S., Rosenblum, M. G., Struzik, Z. R. & Stanley, H. E. (1999). Multifractality in human heartbeat dynamics. Nature 399, 461465.
  • Jasson, S., Medigue, C., Maison-Blanche, P., Montano, N., Meyer, L., Vermeiren, C., Mansier, P., Coumel, P., Malliani, A. & Swynghedauw, B. (1997). Instant power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability during orthostatic tilt using a time-/frequency-domain method. Circulation 96, 35213526.
  • Kaplan, D. T., Furman, M. I., Pincus, S. M., Ryan, S. M., LipsitZ, L. A. & Goldberger, A. L. (1991). Aging and the complexity of cardiovascular dynamics. Biophysical Journal 59, 945949.
  • Katona, P. G. & Jih, F. (1975). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Noninvasive measure of parasympathetic cardiac control. Journal of Applied Physiology 39, 801805.
  • Katona, P. G., Poitras, J. W., Barnett, G. O. & Terry, B. S. (1970). Cardiac vagal efferent activity and heart period in the carotid sinus reflex. American Journal of Physiology 218, 10301037.
  • Kocsis, B., Karlsson, T. & Wallin, B. G. (1999). Cardiac- and noncardiac-related coherence between sympathetic drives to muscles of different human limbs. American Journal of Physiology 276, R16081616.
  • Koh, J., Brown, T. E., Beightol, L. A., Ha, C. Y. & Eckberg, D. L. (1994). Human autonomic rhythms: vagal cardiac mechanisms in tetraplegic subjects. Journal of Physiology 474, 483495.
  • Koizumi, K., Terui, N. & Kollai, M. (1985). Effect of cardiac vagal and sympathetic nerve activity on heart rate in rhythmic fluctuations. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 12, 251259.
  • Kollai, M. & Koizumi, K. (1979). Reciprocal and non-reciprocal action of the vagal and sympathetic nerves innervating the heart. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 1, 3352.
  • Kollai, M. & Mizsei, G. (1990). Repiratory sinus arrhythmia is a limited measure of cardiac parasympathetic control in man. Journal of Physiology 424, 329342.
  • Korhonen, I. (1997). Multivariate closed-loop model for analysis of cardiovascular dynamics. Methods of Information in Medicine 36, 264267.
  • Kruger, K. (1933). Ist der sinus caroticus bei der entstehung der blutdruckwellen hoherer ordnung beteiligt? Zietschrifte Biologie 94, 135149.
  • Ljung, L. (1999). System Identification: Theory for the User. Prentice Hall Information and System Sciences Series. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River , NJ , USA .
  • Luzier, A. B., Nawarskas, J. J., Anonuevo, J., Wilson, M. F. & Kazierad, D. J. (1998). The effects of gender on adrenergic receptor responsiveness. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 38, 618624.
  • Madwed, J. B., Albrecht, P., Mark, R. G. & Cohen, R. J. (1989). Low-frequency oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate: A simple computer model. American Journal of Physiology 256, H15731579.
  • Mainardi, L. T., Bianchi, A. M., Furlan, R., PiaAZZ, S., Barbieri, R., Di Virgilio, V., Malliani, A. & Cerutti, S. (1997). Multivariate time-variant identification of cardiovascular variability signals: A beat-to-beat spectral parameter estimation in vasovagal syncope. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 44, 978989.
  • Makikallio, T. H., Hoiber, S., Kober, L., Torp-Pedersen, C., Peng, C. K., Goldberger, A. L. & Huikuri, H. V. (1999). Fractal analysis of heart rate dynamics as a predictor of mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Trace investigators. Trandolapril cardiac evaluation. American Journal of Cardiology 83, 836839.
  • Mallat, S., Papanicolaou, G. & Zhang, Z. F. (1998). Adaptive covariance estimation of locally stationary processes. Annals of Statistics 26, 147.
  • Malliani, A., Pagani, M. & Lombardi, F. (1994). Physiology and clinical implications of variability of cardiovascular parameters with focus on heart rate and blood pressure. American Journal of Cardiology 73, 39C.
  • Mangin, L., Monti, A., Medigue, C., Macquin-Mavier, I., Lopes, M., Gueret, P., Castaigne, A., Swynghedauw, B. & Mansier, P. (2001). Altered baroreflex gain during voluntary breathing in chronic heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure 3, 189195.
  • Mateo, J. & Laguna, P. (2000). Improved heart rate variability signal analysis from the beat occurrence times according to the ipfm model. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 47, 985996.
  • Mayer, S. (1877). Studien zur physiologie des herzens und der blutgefasse. V. Uber spontane blutdruckschwankungen. Sitzungsberichte Kaiserlich Akad Wissenschaft Mathemat-Naturwissenschaft Classe 74, 281307.
  • Michaels, D. C., Matyas, E. P. & Jalife, J. (1987). Mechanisms of sinoatrial pacemaker synchronization: A new hypothesis. Circulation Research 61, 704714.
  • Montano, N., Cogliati, C., Porta, A., Pagani, M., Malliani, A., NarkiewicZ, K., Abboud, F. M., Birkett, C. & Somers, V. K. (1998). Central vagotonic effects of atropine modulate spectral oscillations of sympathetic nerve activity. Circulation 98, 13941399.
  • MorawitZ, P. (1903). Zur differenzierung rhythmischer blutdruckschwankungen. Archives of Anatomy and Physiology 1, 8299.
  • Mullen, T. J., Appel, M. L., Mukkamala, R., Mathias, J. M. & Cohen, R. J. (1997). System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: Effects of posture and autonomic blockade. American Journal of Physiology 272, H448461.
  • Murata, K., Landrigan, P. J. & Araki, S. (1992). Effects of age, heart rate, gender, tobacco and alcohol ingestion on R-R interval variability in human ECG. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 37, 199206.
  • Myers, C. W., Cohen, M. A., Eckberg, D. L. & Taylor, J. A. (2001). A model for the genesis of arterial pressure Mayer waves from heart rate and sympathetic activity. Autonomic Neuroscience 91, 6275.
  • Nakata, A., Takata, S., Yuasa, T., Shimakura, A., Maruyama, M., Nagai, H., Sakagami, S. & Kobayashi, K. (1998). Spectral analysis of heart rate, arterial pressure, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in normal humans. American Journal of Physiology 274, H12111217.
  • Olufsen, M. S. (1999). Structured tree outflow condition for blood flow in larger systemic arteries. American Journal of Physiology 276, H257268.
  • Olufsen, M. S., Peskin, C. S., Kim, W. Y., Pedersen, E. M., Nadim, A. & Larsen, J. (2000). Numerical simulation and experimental validation of blood flow in arteries with structured-tree outflow conditions. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 28, 12811299.
  • Ottesen, J. T. (1997). Modelling of the baroreflex-feedback mechanism with time-delay. Journal of Mathematical Biology 36, 4163.
  • Pagani, M., Lombardi, F., GuETTIZZ, S., Rimoldi, O., Furlan, R., PiINELLIZZ, P., Sandrone, G., Malfatto, G., Dell'orto, S., Piccaluga, E., Turiel, M., Baselli, G., Cerutti, S. & Malliani, A. (1986). Power spectral analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variabilities as a marker of sympatho-vagal interaction in man and conscious dog. Circulation Research 59, 178193.
  • Pagani, M., Montano, N., Porta, A., Malliani, A., Abboud, F. M., Birkett, C. & Somers, V. K. (1997). Relationship between spectral components of cardiovascular variabilities and direct measures of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans. Circulation 95, 14411448.
  • Parati, G., Saul, J. P., Di Rienzo, M. & Mancia, G. (1995). Spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate variability in evaluating cardiovascular regulation. A critical appraisal. Hypertension 25, 12761286.
  • PenaZ, J., Honzikova, N. & Fiser, B. (1978). Spectral analysis of resting variability of some circulatory parameters in man. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 27, 349357.
  • Peng, C.-K., Mietus, J., Hausdorff, J. M., Havlin, S., Stanley, H. E. & Goldberger, A. L. (1993). Long-range anticorrelations and non-Gaussian behavior of the heartbeat. Physical Review Letters 70, 13431346.
  • Penm, J. H. W. & Terrell, R. D. (1982). On the recursive fitting of subset autoregressions. Journal of Time Series Analysis 3, 4359.
  • Pilgram, B. & Kaplan, D. T. (1999). Nonstationarity and 1/f noise characteristics in heart rate. American Journal of Physiology 276, R19.
  • Pincus, S. M. & Goldberger, A. L. (1994). Physiological time-series analysis: What does regularity quantify? American Journal of Physiology 266, H16431656.
  • Porta, A., GuETTIZZ, S., Montano, N., Furlan, R., Pagani, M., Malliani, A. & Cerutti, S. (2001). Entropy, entropy rate, and pattern classification as tools to typify complexity in short heart period variability series. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 48, 12821291.
  • Porta, A., GuETTIZZ, S., Montano, N., Pagani, M., Somers, V., Malliani, A., Baselli, G. & Cerutti, S. (2000). Information domain analysis of cardiovascular variability signals: Evaluation of regularity, synchronisation and co-ordination. Medicine and Biology in Engineering and Computing 38, 180188.
  • Preiss, G., Iscoe, S. & Polosa, C. (1975). Analysis of a periodic breathing pattern associated with Mayer waves. American Journal of Physiology 228, 768774.
  • Preiss, G. & Polosa, C. (1974). Patterns of sympathetic neuron activity associated with Mayer waves. American Journal of Physiology 226, 724730.
  • Raczkowska, M., Eckberg, D. L. & Ebert, T. J. (1983). Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate vagal cardiac responses in man. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 7, 271278.
  • Radaelli, A., Bernardi, L., Valle, F., LeuIZZ, S., Salvucci, F., Pedrotti, L., Marchesi, E., Finardi, G. & Sleight, P. (1994). Cardiovascular autonomic modulation in essential hypertension. Effect of tilting. Hypertension 24, 556563.
  • Rompelman, O., Snijders, J. B. & Van Spronsen, C. J. (1982). The measurement of heart rate variability spectra with the help of a personal computer. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 29, 503510.
  • Rothlin, E. & Cerletti, A. (1950). Uber die koppelung von atmung und kreislauf. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 80, 13941399.
  • Rudas, L., Crossman, A. A., Morillo, C. A., Halliwill, J. R., Tahvanainen, K. U., Kuusela, T. A. & Eckberg, D. L. (1999). Human sympathetic and vagal baroreflex responses to sequential nitroprusside and phenylephrine. American Journal of Physiology 276, H16911698.
  • Ryan, S. M., Goldberger, A. L., Pincus, S. M., Mietus, J. & LipsitZ, L. A. (1994). Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: Are women more complex than men? Journal of the American College of Cardiology 24, 17001707.
  • St Croix, C. M., Morgan, B. J., Wetter, T. J. & Dempsey, J. A. (2000). Fatiguing inspiratory muscle work causes reflex sympathetic activation in humans. Journal of Physiology 529, 493504.
  • Saul, J. P., Berger, R. D., Albrecht, P., Stein, S. P., Chen, M. H. & Cohen, R. J. (1991). Transfer function analysis of the circulation: Unique insights into cardiovascular regulation. American Journal of Physiology 261, H12311245.
  • Scheffer, G. J., Tenvoorde, B. J., Karemaker, J. M. & Ros, H. H. (1994). Effects of epidural analgesia and atropine on heart rate and blood pressure variability: Implications for the interpretation of beat-to-beat fluctuations. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 11, 7580.
  • Seals, D. R., Suwarno, N. O. & Dempsey, J. A. (1990). Influence of lung volume on sympathetic nerve discharge in normal humans. Circulation Research 67, 130141.
  • Seals, D. R., Suwarno, N. O., Joyner, M. J., Iber, C., Copeland, J. G. & Dempsey, J. A. (1993). Respiratory modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in intact and lung denervated humans. Circulation Research 72, 440454.
  • Seydnejad, S. R. & Kitney, R. I. (2001). Time-varying threshold integral pulse frequency modulation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 48, 949962.
  • Siegel, G., Roedel, H. & Hofer, H. W. (1976). Basic rhythms in vascular smooth muscle. In Smooth Muscle Pharmacology and Physiology, ed. Worcel, M. & Vassort, G., pp. 215231. INSERM, Paris .
  • Sleight, P., La Rovere, M. T., Mortara, A., Pinna, G., Maestri, R., LeuIZZ, S., Bianchini, B., TavaIZZ, L. & Bernardi, L. (1995). Physiology and pathophysiology of heart rate and blood pressure variability in humans: Is power spectral analysis largely an index of baroreflex gain? Clinical Science 88, 103109.
  • Sunagawa, K., Kawada, T. & Nakahara, T. (1998). Dynamic nonlinear vago-sympathetic interaction in regulating heart rate. Heart Vessels 13, 157174.
  • Taguchi, T. (1983). Studies on the periodicity of fetal and neonatal heart rate variability by fast fourier transform analysis. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 35, 5360.
  • Taylor, J. A., Carr, D. L., Myers, C. W. & Eckberg, D. L. (1998a). Mechanisms underlying very-low-frequency RR-interval oscillations in humans. Circulation 98, 547555.
  • Taylor, J. A. & Eckberg, D. L. (1996). Fundamental relations between short-term RR interval and arterial pressure oscillations in humans. Circulation 93, 15271532.
  • Taylor, J. A., Myers, C. W., Halliwill, J. R., Seidel, H. & Eckberg, D. L. (2001). Sympathetic restraint of respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Implications for vagal-cardiac tone assessment in humans. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology 280, H28042814.
  • Taylor, J. A., Williams, T. D., Seals, D. R. & Davy, K. P. (1998b). Low-frequency arterial pressure fluctuations do not reflect sympathetic outflow: gender and age differences. American Journal of Physiology 274, H11941201.
  • Teich, M. C., Lowen, S. B., Jost, B. M., Vibe-Rheymer, K. & Heneghan, C. (2000). Heart rate variability: measures and models. In Nonlinear Biomedical Signal Processing, ed. Akay, M., pp. 159213. IEEE Press, New York .
  • Tong, H. (1990). Non-linear time series: a dynamical system approach. In Oxford Statistical Science Series, vol. 6, pp. 564580. Oxford University Press, UK .
  • Toska, K. & Eriksen, M. (1993). Respiration-synchronous fluctuations in stroke volume, heart rate and arterial pressure in humans. Journal of Physiology 472, 501512.
  • Traube, L. (1865). Ueber periodische thatigkeits-aeusserungen des vasomotorischen und hemmungs-nervencentrums. Medizin Wissenschaft 56, 881885.
  • Triedman, J. K. & Saul, J. P. (1994). Blood pressure modulation by central venous pressure and respiration. Buffering effects of the heart rate reflexes. Circulation 89, 169179.
  • Turcott, R. G. & Teich, M. C. (1996). Fractal character of the electrocardiogram: Distinguishing heart-failure and normal patients. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 24, 269293.
  • Ursino, M. & Lodi, C. A. (1998). Interaction among autoregulation, CO2 reactivity, and intracranial pressure: A mathematical model. American Journal of Physiology 274, H17151728.
  • Vaile, J. C., Fletcher, J., Al-Ani, M., Ross, H. F., Littler, W. A., Coote, J. H. & Townend, J. N. (1999). Use of opposing reflex stimuli and heart rate variability to examine the effects of lipophilic and hydrophilic beta-blockers on human cardiac vagal control. Clinical Science 97, 585593.
  • van de Borne, P., Montano, N., Pagani, M., Oren, R. & Somers, V. K. (1997). Absence of low-frequency variability of sympathetic nerve activity in severe heart failure. Circulation 95, 14491454.
  • van de Borne, P., Rahnama, M., MeETTIZZ, S., Montano, N., Porta, A., Degaute, J. P. & Somers, V. K. (2001). Contrasting effects of phentolamine and nitroprusside on neural and cardiovascular variability. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology 281, H559565.
  • Veerman, D. P., ImholZ, B. P., Wieling, W., Karemaker, J. M. & Van Montfrans, G. A. (1994). Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions. Hypertension 24, 120130.
  • Wesseling, K. H., Jansen, J. R., Settels, J. J. & Schreuder, J. J. (1993). Computation of aortic flow from pressure in humans using a nonlinear, three-element model. Journal of Applied Physiology 74, 25662573.
  • Wray, D. W., Formes, K. J., Weiss, M. S., Ah, O. Y., Raven, P. B., Zhang, R. & Shi, X. (2001). Vagal cardiac function and arterial blood pressure stability. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology 281, H18701880.
  • Yeragani, V. K., Srinivasan, K., Vempati, S., Pohl, R. & Balon, R. (1993). Fractal dimension of heart rate time series: An effective measure of autonomic function. Journal of Applied Physiology 75, 24292438.