Application of physiological genomics to the study of hearing disorders



Although the biophysical principles of how the ear operates are reasonably well understood, little is known about the specific genes that confer normal function to the inner ear. Nevertheless, the recent implementation of genomic tools has led to extraordinary progress in the identification of mutated genes that cause non-syndromic and syndromic forms of deafness. Part of this success is directly related to the sequencing of the human and mouse genomes and improved gene annotation methods. This review discusses how physiological genomic tools, such as genomic databases, expressed sequence tag databases and DNA arrays have been applied to find candidate genes for important molecular processes in the inner ear. It also illustrates, using the discovery of genes encoding essential components of cochlear K+ homeostasis as an example, how the combination of physiological genomic tools with physiological and morphological information has led to an in-depth understanding of cochlear ion homeostasis. Finally, it discusses how the use of applied genomic tools, such as gene arrays, will further advance our knowledge of how the inner ear works, develops, ages and regenerates.