• Berthoz, A. (2000). The Brain's Sense of Movement. Harvard University Press, Cambridge , MA , USA .
  • Caron, O., Faure, B. & Breniere, Y. (1997). Estimating the centre of gravity of the body on the basis of the centre of pressure in standing posture. Journal of Biomechanics 30, 11691171.
  • Carpenter, M. G., Frank, J. S. & Silcher, C. P. (1999). Surface height effects on postural control: a hypothesis for a stiffness strategy for stance. Journal of Vestibular Research 9, 277286.
  • de Zee, M. & Voigt, M. (2001). Moment dependency of the series elastic stiffness in the human plantar flexors measured in vivo. Journal of Biomechanics 34, 13991406.
  • Diener, H. C., Dichgans, J., Bootz, F. & Bacher, M. (1984). Early stabilization of human posture after a sudden disturbance - Influence of rate and amplitude of displacement. Experimental Brain Research 56, 126134.
  • Fitzpatrick, R., Burke, D. & Gandevia, S. C. (1996). Loop gain of reflexes controlling human standing measured with the use of postural and vestibular disturbances. Journal of Neurophysiology 76, 39944008.
  • Fitzpatrick, R. C., Gorman, R. B., Burke, D. & Gandevia, S. C. (1992a). Postural proprioceptive reflexes in standing human subjects: bandwidth of response and transmission characteristics. Journal of Physiology 458, 6983.
  • Fitzpatrick, R. C., Taylor, J. L. & McCloskey, D. I. (1992b). Ankle stiffness of standing humans in response to imperceptible perturbation: reflex and task-dependent components. Journal of Physiology 454, 533547.
  • Gatev, P., Thomas, S., Thomas, K. & Hallett, M. (1999). Feedforward ankle strategy of balance during quiet stance in adults. Journal of Physiology 514, 915928.
  • Grillner, S. (1972). The role of muscle stiffness in meeting the changing postural and locomotor requirements for force development by the ankle extensors. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 86, 92108.
  • Gurfinkel, V. S., Ivanenko, Y. P. & Levik, Y. S. (1994). The contribution of foot deformation to the changes of muscular length and angle in the ankle joint during standing in man. Physiological Research 43, 371377.
  • Gurfinkel, V. S., Lipshits, M. I. & Popov, K. Y. (1974). Is the stretch reflex the main mechanism in the system of regulation of the vertical posture of man? Biophysics 19, 761766.
  • Horak, F. B. & MacPherson, J. M. (1996). Postural orientation and equilibrium. In Handbook of Physiology, section 12, Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems, ed. Rowell, L. B. & Shepherd, J. T., pp. 255292. Oxford University Press, Oxford .
  • Hunter, I. W. & Kearney, R. E. (1982). Dynamics of human ankle stiffness: variation with mean ankle torque. Journal of Biomechanics 15, 747752.
  • Ingle, V. K. & Proakis, J. G. (1997). Digital Signal Processing: using MATLAB v. 4. PWS Publishing Company, Boston .
  • Kearney, R. E. & Hunter, I. W. (1982). Dynamics of human ankle stiffness: variation with displacement amplitude. Journal of Biomechanics 15, 753756.
  • Loram, I. D., Kelly, S. & Lakie, M. (2001). Human balancing of an inverted pendulum: is sway size controlled by ankle impedance? Journal of Physiology 532, 879891.
  • Maganaris, C. N. (2002). Tensile properties of in vivo human tendinous tissue. Journal of Biomechanics 35, 10191027.
  • Mirbagheri, M. M., Barbeau, H. & Kearney, R. E. (2000). Intrinsic and reflex contributions to human ankle stiffness: variation with activation level and position. Experimental Brain Research 135, 423436.
  • Morasso, P. G., Baratto, L., Capra, R. & Spada, G. (1999). Internal models in the control of posture. Neural Networks 12, 11731180.
  • Morasso, P. G. & Schieppati, M. (1999). Can muscle stiffness alone stabilize upright standing? Journal of Neurophysiology 82, 16221626.
  • Patla, A. E., Ishac, M. & Winter, D. A. (2002). Anticipatory control of center of mass and joint stability during voluntary arm movement from a standing posture: interplay between active and passive control. Experimental Brain Research 143, 318327.
  • Stein, R. B. (1982). What muscle variable does the nervous system control in limb movements? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5, 535577.
  • Winter, D. A., Patla, A. E., Prince, F., Ishac, M. & Gielo-Perczak, K. (1998). Stiffness control of balance in quiet standing. Journal of Neurophysiology 80, 12111221.
  • Winter, D. A., Patla, A. E., Rietdyk, S. & Ishac, M. (2001). Ankle muscle stiffness in the control of balance during quiet standing. Journal of Neurophysiology 85, 26302633.
  • Winters, J., Stark, L. & Seif-Naraghi, A.-H. (1988). An analysis of the sources of musculoskeletal system impedance. Journal of Biomechanics 21, 10111025.