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Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose: coupling of epithelial with endothelial transport
Article first published online: 16 JUL 2004
The Journal of Physiology
Volume 553, Issue 2, pages 561–574, December 2003
How to Cite
Pappenheimer, J. R. and Michel, C. C. (2003), Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose: coupling of epithelial with endothelial transport. The Journal of Physiology, 553: 561–574. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.043257
J. R. Pappenheimer: Apartment 113, 66 Sherman Street, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA.
- Issue published online: 16 JUL 2004
- Article first published online: 16 JUL 2004
- (Received 20 March 2003; accepted after revision 18 August 2003; first published online 22 August 2003)
Capillaries in jejunal villi can absorb nutrients at rates several hundred times greater (per gram tissue) than capillaries in other tissues, including contracting skeletal muscle and brain. We here present an integrative hypothesis to account for these exceptionally large trans-endothelial fluxes and their relation to epithelial transport. Equations are developed for estimating concentration gradients of glucose across villus capillary walls, along paracellular channels and across subjunctional lateral membranes of absorptive cells. High concentrations of glucose discharged across lateral membranes to subjunctional intercellular spaces are delivered to abluminal surfaces of villus capillaries by convection-diffusion in intercellular channels without significant loss of concentration. Post-junctional paracellular transport thus provides the series link between epithelial and endothelial transport and makes possible the large trans-endothelial concentration gradients required for absorption to blood. Our analysis demonstrates that increases of villus capillary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) are essential components of absorptive mechanisms: epithelial transport of normal digestive loads could not be sustained without concomitant increases in capillary blood flow and PS. The low rates of intestinal absorption found in anaesthetised animals may be attributed to inhibition of normal villus microvascular responses to epithelial transport.