SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Al Suwaidi J, Higano ST, Holmes DR, Lennon R & Lerman A (2001). Obesity is independently associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients with normal or mildly diseased coronary arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol 37, 15231528.
  • Bao W, Srinivasan SR, Wattigney WA & Berenson GS (1994). Persistence of multiple cardiovascular risk clustering related to Syndrome X from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Arch Intern Med 154, 18421847.
  • Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP, Tracy RE & Wattingney WA (1998). Association between multiple risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. N Engl J Med 338, 16501656.
  • Berghoff M, Kathpal M, Kilo S, Hilz MJ & Freeman R (2002). Vascular and neural mechanisms of ACh-mediated vasodilation in the forearm cutaneous microcirculation. J Appl Physiol 92, 780788.
  • Brook CGD, (1971). Determination of body composition of children from skinfold measurements. Arch Dis Child 46, 182184.
  • Celermajer DS, Sorensen KE, Gooch VM, Spiegelhalter DJ, Miller OI, Sullivan ID, Lloyd JK & Deanfield JE (1992). Non-invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in children and adults at risk of atherosclerosis. Lancet 340, 11111115.
  • Chen W, Bao W, Begum S, Elkasabany A, Srinivasan SR & Berenson GS (2000). Age-related patterns of the clustering of cardiovascular risk variables of Syndrome X from childhood to young adulthood in a population made up of black and white subjects. Diabetes 49, 10421048.
  • Cleland S, Petrie J & Morris AD (1996). FIRI: a fair insulin resistance index Lancet 347, 770.
  • Ehtisham S, Barrett TG & Shaw NJ (2000). Type 2 diabetes mellitus in UK children – an emerging problem. Diabetic Med 17, 867871.
  • Elhadd TA, Khan F, Kirk G, McLaren M, Newton RW, Greene SA & Belch JJ (1998). Influence of puberty on endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in young patients with Type-1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 21, 19901996.
  • Guo SS, Chumlea CWM, Maynard ML & Siervogel RM (2000). Adiposity during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood in relation to adult cardiovascular risk factors. Circulation 102 (suppl. 2), 872 (abstract)
  • Hyppönen E, Virtanen SM, Kenward MG, Knip M & Åkerblom HK (2000). Obesity, increased linear growth, and risk of Type 1 diabetes in children. Diabetes Care 23, 17551760.
  • Katz A, Ekberg K, Johansson B & Wahren J (2001). Diminished skin blood flow in type I diabetes: evidence for non-endothelium-dependent dysfunction. Clin Sci 101, 5964.
  • Kavey REW, Daniels SR, Lauer RM, Atkins DL, Hayman LL & Taubert K (2003). American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. Circulation 107, 15621566.
  • Kennedy G, Green FC, McLaren M & Belch JJF (1999). sE-selectin and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Thromb Haemost (Aug suppl.), 225 (abstract)
  • Khan F, Davidson NC, Littleford RC, Litchfield SJ, Struthers AD & Belch JJF (1997). Cutaneous vascular responses to acetylcholine are mediated by a prostacyclin-dependent mechanism in man. Vasc Med 2, 8286.
  • Khan F, Elhadd TA, Greene SA & Belch JJF (2000). Impaired skin microvascular function in children, adolescents and young adults with Type-1 insulin-dependent; diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 23, 215219.
  • Lind L, Hall J & Johansson K (2002). Evaluation of four different methods to measure endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the human forearm circulation. Clin Sci 102, 561567.
  • Morris SJ, & Shore AC (1996). Skin blood flow responses to the iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in man: possible mechanisms. J Physiol 496, 531542.
  • Morris SJ, Shore AC & Tooke JE (1995). Responses of the skin microcirculation to acetylcholine and nitroprusside in patients with in patients with NIDDM. Diabetologia 38, 13371344.
  • Newton DJ, Khan F & Belch JJF (2001). Assessment of microvascular endothelial function in human skin. Clin Sci 101, 567572.
  • Noon JP, Walker BR, Hand MF & Webb DJ (1998). Studies with iontophoretic administration of drugs to human dermal vessels in vivo: cholinergic vasodilatation is mediated by dilator prostanoids rather than nitric oxide. Br J Clin Pharmacol 45, 545550.
  • Perticone F, Ceravolo R, Candigliota M, Ventura G, Iacopino S, Sinopoli F & Mattioli PL (2001). Obesity and body fat distribution induce endothelial dysfunction by oxidative stress: protective effect of vitamin C. Diabetes 50, 159165.
  • Pinkney JH, Stehouwer CDA, Coppack SW & Yudkin JS (1997). Endothelial dysfunction: cause of the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes 46 (suppl. 2), S913.
  • Rainwater DL, Mitchell BD, Comuzzie AG, Vandeberg JL, Stern MP & MacCluer JW (2000). Associations among 5-year changes in weight, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Mexican Americans. Am J Epidemiol 152, 974982.
  • Rudolf MC, Sahota P, Barth JH & Walker J (2001). Increasing prevalence of obesity in primary school children. BMJ 322, 10941095.
  • Serné EH, Stehouwer CDA, ter Maatten JC, ter Wee PT, Rauwerda JA, Donker AJ & Gans RO (1999). Microvascular function relates to insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normal subjects. Circulation 99, 896902.
  • Siervogel RM, Wisemandle W, Maynard LM, Guo SS, Roche AF, Chumlea WC & Towne B (1998). Serial changes in body composition throughout adulthood and their relationships to changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels – The Fels longitudinal study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 8, 17591764.
  • Sinha R, Fisch G, Teague B, Tamborlane WV, Banyas B, Allen K, Savoye M, Rieger V, Taksali S, Barbetta G, Sherwin RS & Caprio S (2002). Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. N Engl J Med 346, 802810.
  • Sloan JB, & Soltani K (1986). Iontophoresis in dermatology. J Am Acad Derm 15, 671684.
  • Smith NL, Barzilay JI, Permanente K, Savage PJ, Heckbert SR, Kuller LH, Kromel RA, Resnick HE & Psaty BN (2000). Fasting and 2-hour post-challenge glucose measures and risk of cardiovascular disease in the elderly: the cardiovascular health study. Circulation 102 (suppl. 2), 872 (abstract)
  • Sorensen KE, Celermajer DS, Georgakopoulos D, Hatcher G, Betteridge DJ & Deanfield JE (1994). Impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation is an early event in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia and is related to the lipoprotein(a) level. J Clin Invest 93, 5055.
  • Spence VA, Khan F & Belch JJF (2000). Enhanced sensitivity of the peripheral cholinergic vascular response in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Am J Med 108, 736739.
  • Steineberger J, & Daniels SR (2003). Obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular risk in children. Circulation 107, 14481453.
  • Title LM, Cummings PM, Giddens K & Nassar BA (2000). Oral glucose loading acutely attenuates endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy adults without diabetes: an effect prevented by vitamins C and E. J Am Coll Cardiol 36, 21852191.
  • Tounian P, Aggoun Y, Dubern B, Varille V, Guy Grand B, Sidi D, Girardet JP & Bonnet D (2001). Presence of increased stiffness of the common carotid artery and endothelial dysfunction in severely obese children: a prospective study. Lancet 358, 14001404.
  • Warren JB, (1994). Nitric oxide mediates and human skin blood flow to acetylcholine and ultraviolet light. FASEB J 8, 247251.
  • Whittaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD & Dietz WH (1997). Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med 337, 869873.
  • Wilson AC, Forsyth JS, Greene SA, Irvine L, Hau C & Howie PW (1998). Relation of infant diet to childhood health: seven year follow up of children in the Dundee infant feeding study. BMJ 316, 2125.