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Large conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa channels) are regulated by several distinct mechanisms, including phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events and protein-protein interactions. In this study, we have examined the interaction between BKCa channels and syntaxin 1A, a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) that is reported to modulate the activity and/or localization of different classes of ion channels. Using a reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation strategy, we observed that native BKCa channels in rat hippocampus co-associate with syntaxin 1A, but not the closely related homologue syntaxin 3. This BKCa channel-syntaxin 1A interaction could be further demonstrated in a non-neuronal cell line (human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells) following co-expression of rat syntaxin 1A and BKCa channels cloned from either mouse brain or bovine aorta. However, co-expression of these same channels with syntaxin 3 did not lead to a detectable protein-protein interaction. Immunofluorescent co-staining of HEK 293 cells expressing BKCa channels and syntaxin 1A demonstrated overlapping distribution of these two proteins in situ. Functionally, co-expression of BKCa channels with syntaxin 1A, but not syntaxin 3, was observed to enhance channel gating and kinetics at low concentrations (1–4 μm) of free cytosolic calcium, but not at higher concentrations (≤ 10 μm), as judged by macroscopic current recordings in excised membrane patches. Interactions between BKCa channels and neighbouring membrane proteins may thus play important roles in regulating the activity and/or distribution of these channels within specialized cellular compartments.