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In addition to being the main source of inhibition in the adult brain, GABAergic interneurones are instrumental in pacing the activity of large ensembles of principal cells. GABAergic interneurones have unique features that enable them to contribute to the generation of synchronized network activity thereby shaping principal cell behaviour. Whereas the anatomical and physiological characteristics of certain interneuronal types have been studied extensively over the last decades, the molecular diversity of interneurones is a more recent focus of investigation in this field. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of many receptor families often revealed differential expression in GABAergic interneurones and pyramidal cells. Here we review recent findings regarding the molecular diversity of GABAergic interneurones in the neocortex. Better knowledge about differential gene expression in GABAergic interneurones is the basis for further investigations aimed at understanding the contribution of specific proteins in interneurones to network function.