Permeant anions contribute to voltage dependence of ClC-2 chloride channel by interacting with the protopore gate

Authors

  • Jorge E. Sánchez-Rodríguez,

    1. Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Dr Manuel Nava no. 6, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78290, México
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  • José A. De Santiago-Castillo,

    1. Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Venustiano Carranza no. 2405, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78210, México J.A. De Santiago-Castillo
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  • Jorge Arreola

    1. Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Dr Manuel Nava no. 6, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78290, México
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Corresponding author J. Arreola: Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Dr Manuel Nava no. 6, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78290, México.  Email: arreola@dec1.ifisica.uaslp.mx

Abstract

It has been shown that the voltage (Vm) dependence of ClC Cl channels is conferred by interaction of the protopore gate with H+ ions. However, in this paper we present evidence which indicates that permeant Cl ions contribute to Vm-dependent gating of the broadly distributed ClC-2 Cl channel. The apparent open probability (PA) of ClC-2 was enhanced either by changing the [Cl]i from 10 to 200 mm or by keeping the [Cl]i low (10 mm) and then raising [Cl]o from 10 to 140 mm. Additionally, these changes in [Cl] slowed down channel closing at positive Vm suggesting that high [Cl] increased pore occupancy thus hindering closing of the protopore gate. The identity of the permeant anion was also important since the PA(Vm) curves were nearly identical with Cl or Br but shifted to negative voltages in the presence of SCN ions. In addition, gating, closing rate and reversal potential displayed anomalous mole fraction behaviour in a SCN/Cl mixture in agreement with the idea that pore occupancy by different permeant anions modifies the Vm dependence ClC-2 gating. Based on the ec1-ClC anion pathway, we hypothesized that opening of the protopore gate is facilitated when Cl ions dwell in the central binding site. In contrast, when Cl ions dwell in the external binding site they prevent the gate from closing. Finally, this Cl-dependent gating in ClC-2 channels is of physiological relevance since an increase in [Cl]o enhances channel opening when the [Cl]i is in the physiological range.

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