SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

The present brief review highlights the putative role of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible-kinase-1 (SGK1) in the regulation of neuronal function. SGK1 is genomically upregulated by cell shrinkage and by a variety of hormones including mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. The kinase is activated by insulin and growth factors via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3-kinase), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mammalian target of rapamycin mTORC2. SGK1 upregulates ion channels (e.g. SCN5A, ENaC, ASIC1, TRPV5,6, ROMK, Kv1.1–5, KCNEx/KCNQ1–5, GluR6, VSOAC, ClC2, CFTR), carriers (e.g. NHE3, NKCC2, NCC, NaPiIIb, SMIT, GLUT1,4, SGLT1, NaDC, EAAT1–5, SN1, ASCT2, 4F2/LAT, PepT2), and the Na+/K+-ATPase. SGK1 regulates enzymes (e.g. glycogen-synthase-kinase-3, ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4-2, phosphomannose-mutase-2), and transcription factors (e.g. forkhead transcription factor Foxo3a, β-catenin, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NFκB)). SGK1 participates in the regulation of transport, hormone release, neuroexcitability, inflammation, coagulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. SGK1 contributes to regulation of renal Na+ retention, renal K+ elimination, salt appetite, gastric acid secretion, intestinal Na+/H+ exchange and nutrient transport, insulin-dependent salt sensitivity of blood pressure, salt sensitivity of peripheral glucose uptake, cardiac repolarization and memory consolidation. Presumably, SGK1 contributes to the regulation of diverse cerebral functions (e.g. memory consolidation, fear retention) and the pathophysiology of several cerebral diseases (e.g. Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's disease). Despite multiple SGK1 functions, the phenotype of the SGK1 knockout mouse is mild and becomes only apparent under challenging conditions.