Basic properties of somatosensory-evoked responses in the dorsal hippocampus of the rat

Authors


L. M. de la Prida: Instituto Cajal CSIC, Neurobiología-Investigación, Ave Doctor Arce 37, Madrid 28002, Spain. Email: lmprida@cajal.csic.es; G. Foffani: Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos, Servicio de Salud de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo 45071, Spain. Email: guglielmo.foffani@drexel.edu

Key points

  • • We investigate the elementary responses of the hippocampus to somatosensory stimulation (peripheral and lemniscal) in rats given its relevance for episodic memory function.
  • • We integrate local field potential and multi-unit data from multisite silicon probes, single-unit data from tetrode recordings and membrane potential data from intracellular recordings.
  • • Somatosensory signals reach the hippocampus mainly from layer II entorhinal cortex to directly discharge dentate gyrus granule cells, while a different predominantly inhibitory process takes place in CA1, further controlling the hippocampal output.
  • • Hippocampal responses to somatosensory stimuli were dependent on fluctuations in the strength and composition of synaptic inputs due to changes of the ongoing local (hippocampal) and distant (cortical) state.
  • • Our data reveal a distinct organization of somatosensory-related extra-hippocampal inputs converging onto dentate gyrus and CA1.

Abstract  The hippocampus is a pivotal structure for episodic memory function. This ability relies on the possibility of integrating different features of sensory stimuli with the spatio-temporal context in which they occur. While recent studies now suggest that somatosensory information is already processed by the hippocampus, the basic mechanisms still remain unexplored. Here, we used electrical stimulation of the paws, the whisker pad or the medial lemniscus to probe the somatosensory pathway to the hippocampus in the anaesthetized rat, and multisite electrodes, in combination with tetrode and intracellular recordings, to look at the properties of somatosensory hippocampal responses. We found that peripheral and lemniscal stimulation elicited small local field potential responses in the dorsal hippocampus about 35–40 ms post-stimulus. Current source density analysis established the local nature of these responses, revealing associated synaptic sinks that were consistently confined to the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus (DG), with less regular activation of the CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM). A delayed (40–45 ms), potentially active, current source that outlasted the SLM sink was present in about 50% cases around the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Somatosensory stimulation resulted in multi-unit firing increases in the majority of DG responses (79%), whereas multi-unit firing suppression was observed in the majority of CA1 responses (62%). Tetrode and intracellular recordings of individual cells confirmed different firing modulation in the DG and the CA1 region, and verified the active nature of both the early ML sink and delayed somatic CA1 source. Hippocampal responses to somatosensory stimuli were dependent on fluctuations in the strength and composition of synaptic inputs due to changes of the ongoing local (hippocampal) and distant (cortical) state. We conclude that somatosensory signals reach the hippocampus mainly from layer II entorhinal cortex to directly discharge DG granule cells, while a different predominantly inhibitory process takes place in CA1, further controlling the hippocampal output. Therefore, our data reveal a distinct organization of somatosensory-related extra-hippocampal inputs converging onto DG and CA1.

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